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Fermo
Fermo
Fermo
[ˈfermo]  listen (help·info) (ancient: Firmum Picenum) is a town and comune of the Marche, Italy, in the Province of Fermo. Fermo
Fermo
is on a hill, the Sabulo, elevation 319 metres (1,047 ft), on a branch from
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Battle Of Philippi
The Battle of Philippi
Philippi
was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and Octavian (of the Second Triumvirate) and the leaders of Julius Caesar's assassination, Marcus Junius Brutus and Caius Cassius Longinus
Caius Cassius Longinus
in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia. The Second Triumvirate
Second Triumvirate
declared this civil war ostensibly to avenge Julius Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, but the underlying cause was a long-brewing conflict between the so-called Optimates and the so-called Populares. The battle consisted of two engagements in the plain west of the ancient city of Philippi. The first occurred in the first week of October; Brutus faced Octavian, while Antony's forces fought those of Cassius. At first, Brutus pushed back Octavian and entered his legions' camp
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Manfred Of Sicily
Manfred
Manfred
(Sicilian: Manfredi di Sicilia; 1232 – 26 February 1266) was the King of Sicily
King of Sicily
from 1258 to 1266. He was an illegitimate son of the emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen,[1] but his mother, Bianca Lancia (or Lanzia), is reported by Matthew Paris
Matthew Paris
to have been married to the emperor while on her deathbed.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 Kingship 3 Marriages and children 4 Character and legacy 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksEarly life[edit]Seal of Manfred Manfred
Manfred
was born in Venosa
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Papal States
Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portalv t eThe Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Italian: Stato della Chiesa, Italian pronunciation: [ˈstato della ˈkjɛːza]; Latin: Status Ecclesiasticus;[2] also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy
Italy
from roughly the 8th century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. At their zenith, they covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes Rome), Marche, Umbria
Umbria
and Romagna, and portions of Emilia
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Prince-Bishop
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty. Thus the principality or prince-bishopric ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or largely overlap with his diocesan jurisdiction, since some parts of his diocese, even the city of his residence, could be exempt from his civil rule, obtaining the status of free imperial city. If the episcopal see is an archbishopric, the correct term is prince-archbishop; the equivalent in the regular (monastic) clergy is prince-abbot. A prince-bishop is usually considered an elected monarch. In the West, with the decline of imperial power from the 4th century onwards in the face of the barbarian invasions, sometimes Christian bishops of cities took the place of the Roman commander, made secular decisions for the city and led their own troops when necessary. Later relations between a prince-bishop and the burghers were invariably not cordial
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Honorius III
Pope
Pope
Honorius III (1150 – 18 March 1227), born as Cencio Savelli, was Pope
Pope
from 18 July 1216 to his death in 1227.Contents1 Early work 2 Papal election 3 Papacy3.1 Fifth Crusade 3.2 Approval of religious orders and other works4 Writings 5 References 6 SourcesEarly work[edit] He was born in Rome
Rome
as a son of Aimerico,[2] a member of the Roman Savelli family.[3] For a time canon at the church of Santa Maria Maggiore,[1] he later became Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church
Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church
in January 1188 and Cardinal Deacon
Cardinal Deacon
of Santa Lucia in Silice on 20 February 1193
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Pentapolis
A pentapolis (from Greek πεντα- penta-, "five" and πόλις polis, "city") is a geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities. Cities in the ancient world probably formed such groups for political, commercial and military reasons, as happened later with the Cinque Ports
Cinque Ports
in England.Contents1 Significant historical cases 2 Pentapoleis of the modern world2.1 Italy 2.2 India 2.3 United States of America 2.4 Algeria3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesSignificant historical cases[edit]The Pentapolis
Pentapolis
on the Adriatic was part of the Exarchate of Ravenna, an administrative unit of the Byzantine Empire. Red: The Pentapolis. Orange: Other cities of the Exarchate.In the biblical Holy Land, the word, occurring in Wisdom, x, 6, designates the region where five cities — Sodom, Gomorrah, Segor (A
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Emperor Henry Vl
Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death. From 1194 he was also King of Sicily. He was the second son of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his consort Beatrix of Burgundy. In 1186 he was married to Constance of Sicily, the posthumous daughter of the Norman king Roger II of Sicily. Henry, still stuck in the Hohenstaufen conflict with the House of Welf, had to enforce the inheritance claims by his wife against her nephew Count Tancred of Lecce
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Asculum
Asculum, also known as Ausculum, was the ancient name of two Italian cities. The first is Ascoli Piceno, the Ausculum in ancient Picenum
Picenum
(modern Marche).[1] It is situated in the valley of the Truentus (mod. Tronto) river on the via Salaria. It was originally a Sabine city (Festus 235.16-17). Following its defeat by the Romans in 268 BC (Eutr. 2,16), Asculum became a civitas foederata. It was the first Italian city to rise up against Rome in 90 BC during the Social War, and it was besieged and captured following the Battle of Asculum (89 BC).[2] Following the war, it became a municipium. In the triumviral period or under Augustus it became a colonia. The second is Ascoli Satriano, a small village of the Satriani people, on a branch of the Appian Way
Appian Way
in Apulia, South East Italy
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Urbs Salvia
The Archaeological Park of Urbs Salvia is situated in the comune of Urbisaglia (Province of Macerata), in the Marches, Italy. It is the largest archaeological park in the region.Contents1 History 2 Archaeological Park2.1 Reservoir 2.2 From the theater to the amphitheater3 See also 4 Sources 5 External linksHistory[edit]Regio V Picenum et VI UmbriaThe city, located in the V Regio Picenum, was founded as a colonia during the 2nd century BC. It was the birthplace of some leading figures of the Roman Empire, such as the consul Gaius Fufius Geminus and Lucius Flavius Silva Nonius Bassus
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Legio IV Flavia Felix
Legio quarta Flavia Felix ("Lucky Flavian Fourth Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army
Imperial Roman army
founded in AD 70 by the emperor Vespasian
Vespasian
(r. 69-79) from the cadre of the disbanded Legio IV Macedonica. The legion was active in Moesia Superior
Moesia Superior
in the first half of the 5th century. The legion symbol was a lion. During the Batavian rebellion, the IV Macedonica fought for Vespasian, but the emperor distrusted his men, probably because they had supported Vitellius
Vitellius
two years before. Therefore IV Macedonica was disbanded, and a new Fourth legion, called Flavian Felix was levied by the emperor, who gave the legio his nomen, Flavia. Since the symbol of the legion is a lion, it was probably levied in July/August 70. IV Flavia Felix was camped in Burnum, Dalmatia (modern Kistanje), where it replaced XI Claudia
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Comune
The comune (IPA: [koˈmune]; plural: comuni, IPA: [koˈmuni]) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.Contents1 Importance and function 2 Subdivisions 3 Homonymy 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksImportance and function[edit] The comune provides many of the basic civil functions: registry of births and deaths, registry of deeds, and contracting for local roads and public works. It is headed by a mayor (sindaco) assisted by a legislative body, the consiglio comunale (communal council), and an executive body, the giunta comunale (communal committee). The mayor and members of the consiglio comunale are elected together by resident citizens: the coalition of the elected mayor (who needs an absolute majority in the first or second round of voting) gains three fifths of the consiglio's seats
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Quaestor
A quaestor (UK: /ˈkwiːstər/, US: /ˈkwɛstər/, Latin for investigator)[1] was a public official in Ancient Rome. The position served different functions depending on the period. In the Roman Kingdom, quaestores parricidii (quaestors with judicial powers) were appointed by the king to investigate and handle murders. In the Roman Republic, quaestors (Lat. quaestores) were elected officials that supervised the state treasury and conducted audits. It was the lowest ranking position in the cursus honorum (course of offices). However, this means that in the political environment of Rome, it was quite common for many aspiring politicians to take the position of quaestor as an early rung on the political ladder
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Latin Colony
A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. Eventually, however, the term came to denote the highest status of Roman city. It is also the origin of the modern term colony.Contents1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Examples 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksCharacteristics[edit] The Roman Republic, having no standing army, used to plant bodies of their own citizens in conquered towns as a kind of garrison
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Etruscan Civilization
Timeline Italy
Italy
portalv t eThe Etruscan civilization
Etruscan civilization
(/ɪˈtrʌskən/) is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy
Italy
in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria
Umbria
and northern Lazio.[2] As distinguished by its unique language, this civilization endured from before the time of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions (c. 700 BC)[3] until its assimilation into the Roman Republic, beginning in the late 4th century BC with the Roman–Etruscan Wars.[3] Culture that is identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy
Italy
after about 800 BC, approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan
Villanovan
culture. The latter gave way in the 7th century BC to a culture that was influenced by Ancient
Ancient
Greek culture
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Adriatic
The Adriatic Sea
Sea
/ˌeɪdriˈætɪk/ is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
from the Balkan peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest and the Po Valley. The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Montenegro
Montenegro
and Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands, mostly located along its eastern, Croatian coast. It is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres (4,045 ft). The Otranto Sill, an underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas
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