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Ferdinand De Saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure
(/soʊˈsjʊər/;[3] French: [fɛʁdinɑ̃ də sosyʁ]; 26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician. His ideas laid a foundation for many significant developments in both linguistics and semiology in the 20th century.[4][5] He is widely considered one of the founders of 20th-century linguistics[6][7][8][9] and one of two major founders (together with Charles Sanders Peirce) of semiotics/semiology.[10] One of his translators, Roy Harris, summarized Saussure's contribution to linguistics and the study of "the whole range of human sciences. It is particularly marked in linguistics, philosophy, psychology, sociology and anthropology."[11] Although they have undergone extension and critique over time, the dimensions of organization introduced by Saussure continue to inform contemporary approaches to the phenomenon of language
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Walker Percy
Walker Percy, Obl.S.B. (May 28, 1916 – May 10, 1990) was an American author from Covington, Louisiana, whose interests included philosophy and semiotics. Percy is known for his philosophical novels set in and around New Orleans, the first of which, The Moviegoer, won the U.S. National Book Award for Fiction.[1] He devoted his literary life to the exploration of "the dislocation of man in the modern age."[2] His work displays a combination of existential questioning, Southern sensibility, and deep Catholic faith.Contents1 Biography 2 Marriage and family 3 Literary career 4 Legacy and honors 5 Works5.1 Novels 5.2 Nonfiction6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksBiography[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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19th-century Philosophy
In the 19th century
19th century
the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
and Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
influencing new generations of thinkers. In the late 18th century a movement known as Romanticism began; it validated strong emotion as an authentic not of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror and terror and awe. Key ideas that sparked changes in philosophy were the fast progress of science; evolution, as postulated by Vanini, Diderot, Lord Monboddo, Erasmus Darwin, Lamarck, Goethe, and Charles Darwin; and what might now be called emergent order, such as the free market of Adam Smith
Adam Smith
within nation states
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William Labov
William "Bill"[1] Labov (/ləˈboʊv/ lə-BOHV;[2][3] born December 4, 1927) is an American linguist, widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of variationist sociolinguistics.[4] He has been described as "an enormously original and influential figure who has created much of the methodology" of sociolinguistics.[5] He is a professor emeritus in the linguistics department of the University of Pennsylvania, and pursues research in sociolinguistics, language change, and dialectology. He retired at the end of spring 2014.[citation needed]Contents1 Biography 2 Work2.1 Language in use 2.2 Golden Age Principle 2.3 Scholarly influence and criticism3 Honours 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Rutherford, New Jersey, he studied at Harvard (1948) and worked as an industrial chemist (1949–61) before turning to linguistics
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Louis Althusser
Louis Pierre Althusser (French: [altysɛʁ]; 16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist
Marxist
philosopher. He was born in Algeria
Algeria
and studied at the École Normale Supérieure
École Normale Supérieure
in Paris, where he eventually became Professor of Philosophy. Althusser was a longtime member—although sometimes a strong critic—of the French Communist
Communist
Party. His arguments and theses were set against the threats that he saw attacking the theoretical foundations of Marxism
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Confabulation
In psychiatry, confabulation (verb: confabulate) is a disturbance of memory, defined as the production of fabricated, distorted, or misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world, without the conscious intention to deceive.[1] People who confabulate present incorrect memories ranging from "subtle alterations to bizarre fabrications",[2] and are generally very confident about their recollections, despite contradictory evidence.[3]Contents1 Description1.1 Distinctions2 Signs and symptoms 3 Theories3.1 Neuropsychological theories 3.2 Self-identity theory 3.3 Temporality theory 3.4 Monitoring theory 3.5 Strategic retrieval account theory 3.6 Executive control theory 3.7 In the context of delusion theories 3.8 Fuzzy-trace theory 3.9 Epistemic
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Heinrich Zimmer
Heinrich Robert Zimmer (6 December 1890 – 20 March 1943) was an Indologist and historian of South Asian art, most known for his works, Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization and Philosophies of India. He was the most important German scholar in Indian Philology after Max Müller
Max Müller
(1823-1900).[1] In 2010, a " Heinrich Zimmer
Heinrich Zimmer
Chair for Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
and Intellectual History" was inaugurated at Heidelberg University.[2]Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Work 4 Personal life 5 Quotes 6 Works 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly life and education[edit] He was born in Greifswald, Germany. Zimmer began studying Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and linguistics at the University of Berlin
University of Berlin
in 1909
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Hermann Oldenberg
Hermann Oldenberg (October 31, 1854 in Hamburg
Hamburg
– March 18, 1920 in Göttingen) was a German scholar of Indology, and Professor at Kiel (1898) and Göttingen
Göttingen
(1908).Contents1 Work 2 Selected publications 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksWork[edit] Oldenberg's 1881 study on Buddhism, entitled Buddha: Sein Leben, seine Lehre, seine Gemeinde, based on Pāli
Pāli
texts, popularized Buddhism
Buddhism
and has remained continuously in print since its first publication. With T. W. Rhys Davids, he edited and translated into English three volumes of Theravada
Theravada
Vinaya
Vinaya
texts, two volumes of the (Vedic) Grhyasutras
Grhyasutras
and two volumes of Vedic hymns on his own account, in the monumental Sacred Books of the East series edited by Max Müller
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Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland
(/ˈswɪtsərlənd/), officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern
Bern
is the seat of the federal authorities.[1][2][note 1] The country is situated in Western-Central Europe,[note 4] and is bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi))
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Vaud
The canton of Vaud (French pronunciation: ​[vo])[3][4][5] is the third largest of the Swiss cantons by population and fourth by size. It is located in Romandy, the French-speaking western part of the country, and borders the canton of Neuchâtel to the north, the cantons of Fribourg and Bern
Bern
to the east, Valais
Valais
and Lake Geneva
Lake Geneva
to the south, the canton of Geneva
Geneva
to the south-west and France (Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) to the west. The capital and biggest city is Lausanne, officially designated "Olympic Capital"[6] by the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
and hosts many international sports organizations
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Michel Foucault
Paul- Michel Foucault
Michel Foucault
(15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault
Michel Foucault
(French: [miʃɛl fuko]), was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic. Foucault's theories primarily address the relationship between power and knowledge, and how they are used as a form of social control through societal institutions. Though often cited as a post-structuralist and postmodernist, Foucault rejected these labels, preferring to present his thought as a critical history of modernity. His thought has influenced academics, especially those working in communication studies, sociology, cultural studies, literary theory, feminism, and critical theory
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John Rupert Firth
John Rupert Firth
John Rupert Firth
(June 17, 1890 in Keighley, Yorkshire – December 14, 1960 in Lindfield, West Sussex), commonly known as J. R. Firth, was an English linguist and a leading figure in British linguistics during the 1950s.[1] He was Professor of English at the University of the Punjab from 1919–1928
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Ernesto Laclau
Ernesto Laclau
Ernesto Laclau
(Spanish: [laˈklau]; 6 October 1935 – 13 April 2014) was an Argentine political theorist. He is often described as post-Marxist. He is well known for his collaborations with his long-term partner, Chantal Mouffe. He studied History in Buenos Aires, graduating from the Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
in 1964, and received a PhD from the University of Essex
University of Essex
in 1977. Since 1986 he served as Professor of Political Theory at the University of Essex, where he founded and directed for many years the graduate programme in Ideology
Ideology
and Discourse Analysis, as well as the Centre for Theoretical Studies in the Humanities and the Social Sciences
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Antoine Meillet
Paul Jules Antoine Meillet
Antoine Meillet
(French: [ɑ̃twan meje]; 11 November 1866, Moulins, France – 21 September 1936, Châteaumeillant, France) was one of the most important French linguists of the early 20th century. He began his studies at the Paris-Sorbonne University, where he was influenced by Michel Bréal, Ferdinand de Saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure
and the members of the L'Année Sociologique. In 1890, he was part of a research trip to the Caucasus, where he studied the Armenian language. After his return, de Saussure had gone back to Geneva so he continued the series of lectures on comparative linguistics that the Swiss linguist had given. Meillet completed his doctorate, Research on the Use of the Genitive-Accusative in Old Slavonic, in 1897
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Émile Durkheim
David Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
(French: [emil dyʁkɛm] or [dyʁkajm];[1] April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist. He formally established the academic discipline and—with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Max Weber—is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science.[2][3] Much of Durkheim's work was concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity; an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being. His first major sociological work was The Division of Labour in Society
The Division of Labour in Society
(1893)
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