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Ferdinand VII Of Spain
Ferdinand VII (Spanish: Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as the Desired (el Deseado) and to his detractors as the Felon King (el Rey Felón). After being overthrown by Napoleon
Napoleon
in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left. Back in power in 1814, he reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. He suppressed the liberal press 1814–33 and jailed many of its editors and writers. Under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death. His reputation among historians is very low. Historian Stanley Payne says:He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history
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Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism
is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.[1][2][3][a]
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Charles Oman
Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman KBE (12 January 1860 – 23 June 1946) was a British military historian. His reconstructions of medieval battles from the fragmentary and distorted accounts left by chroniclers were pioneering. Occasionally his interpretations have been challenged, especially his widely copied thesis that British troops defeated their Napoleonic opponents by firepower alone. Paddy Griffith, among modern historians, claims that the British infantry's discipline and willingness to attack were equally important.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Oman was born in Muzaffarpur district, India,[1] the son of a British planter, and was educated at Winchester College
Winchester College
and at Oxford University, where he studied under William Stubbs. In 1881 he was elected to a Prize Fellowship at All Souls College, where he remained for the rest of his academic career
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Junta (Peninsular War)
In the Napoleonic era, junta (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxunta] or [ˈhunta]) was the name chosen by several local administrations formed in Spain
Spain
during the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
as a patriotic alternative to the official administration toppled by the French invaders. The juntas were usually formed by adding prominent members of society, such as prelates, to the already-existing ayuntamientos (municipal councils). The juntas of the capitals of the traditional peninsular kingdoms of Spain
Spain
styled themselves "Supreme Juntas," to differentiate themselves from, and claim authority over, provincial juntas. Juntas were also formed in Spanish America during this period in reaction to the developments in Spain. The juntas were not necessarily revolutionary, least of all anti-monarchy or democratically elected
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Roman Catholicism
GodTrinity Pater Filius Spiritus Sanctus Consubstantialitas Filioque Divinum illud munusDivine Law Decalogus Ex Cathedra DeificatioRealms beyond the States of the Church Heaven Purgatory Limbo HellMysterium Fidei Passion of Jesus Crucifixion
Crucifixion
of Jesus Harrowing of Hell Resurrection AscensionBeatæ Mariæ Semper Virginis Mariology Veneration Immaculate Conception Mater Dei Perpetual virginity Assumption TitlesOther teachings Josephology Morality Body Lectures Sexuality Apologetics Divine grace Salvation Original sin Saints DogmaTexts Biblia Sacra S
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Battle Of Bailén
Bailén
Bailén
(archaically known as Baylen in English) is a town in the province of Jaén, Spain. Contents1 History 2 Economy 3 Significant Births 4 Twin towns 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Bailén
Bailén
is probably the ancient Baecula, where the Romans, under Scipio the elder, signally defeated the Carthaginians in 209 and 206 B.C. In its neighbourhood, also, in 1212, was fought the great Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, in which, according to the ancient chroniclers, the Castilians under Alphonso VIII, slew 200,000 Almohads, and themselves only lost 25 men
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Spanish Language
Spanish (/ˈspænɪʃ/ (listen); español (help·info)) or Castilian[3] (/kæˈstɪliən/ (listen), castellano (help·info)) is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas
Americas
and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[4][5][6][7][8] Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Girona
Girona
Girona
(English: /dʒiˈroʊnə/, Catalan: [ʒiˈɾonə], Spanish: Gerona [xeˈɾona]; French: Gérone) is a city in Catalonia, Spain, at the confluence of the rivers Ter, Onyar, Galligants, and Güell and has an official population of 99,013 as of January 2017. It is the capital of the province of the same name and of the comarca of the Gironès. It is located 99 km (62 mi) northeast of Barcelona
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Cortes Generales
The Cortes Generales
Cortes Generales
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkortes xeneˈɾales], General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house). The Congress of Deputies meets in the Palacio de las Cortes, and the Senate meets in the Palacio del Senado, both located in Madrid
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Estates Of The Realm
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom
Christendom
(Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe. Different systems for dividing society members into estates developed and evolved over time. The best known system is the French Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
(Old Regime), a three-estate system used until the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1789–1799). Monarchy
Monarchy
was for the king and the queen and this system was made up of clergy (the First Estate), nobles (the Second Estate), and peasants and bourgeoisie (the Third Estate)
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Charles Maurice De Talleyrand-Périgord
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
(/ˈtæləˌrænd ˈpɛrɪˌɡɔːr/;[1] French: [ʃaʁl moʁis də tal(ɛ)ʁɑ̃ peʁiɡɔʁ]; 2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat. After theology studies, he became in 1780 Agent-General of the Clergy
Clergy
and represented the Catholic Church to the French Crown. He worked at the highest levels of successive French governments, most commonly as foreign minister or in some other diplomatic capacity. His career spanned the regimes of Louis XVI, the years of the French Revolution, Napoleon, Louis XVIII, and Louis-Philippe. Those he served often distrusted Talleyrand but, like Napoleon, found him extremely useful
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Manila Galleon
Neolithic
Neolithic
ageCallao and Tabon peoples Arrival of the Negritos Austronesian expansion Angono Petroglyphs Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens Jade cultureIron ageSa Huyun Culture Society of the Igorot Ancient barangaysEvents/ArtifactsBalangay grave goods Manunggul Jar Prehistoric gems Sa Huyun-Kalanay Complex Maitum Anthropomorphic PotteryArchaic epoch (900–1565) Historically documented city-states/polities (by geography from North to South)Samtoy chieftaincy Caboloan Tondo Namayan Rajahnate
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Madrid
Madrid
Madrid
(/məˈdrɪd/, Spanish: [maˈðɾið], locally [maˈðɾi(θ)]) is the capital of Spain
Spain
and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid
Community of Madrid
and Spain
Spain
as a whole. The city has almost 3.166 million[4] inhabitants with a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million
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Spanish Treasure Fleet
The Spanish treasure fleet, or West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias, also called silver fleet or plate fleet (from the Spanish plata meaning "silver"), was a convoy system adopted by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790, linking Spain
Spain
with its territories in America
America
across the Atlantic. The convoys were general purpose cargo fleets used for transporting a wide variety of items, including agricultural goods, lumber, various metal resources, luxuries, silver, gold, gems, pearls, spices, sugar, tobacco, silk, and other exotic goods from the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
to the Spanish mainland. Passengers and goods such as textiles, books and tools were transported in the opposite direction.[1][2] The West Indies fleet was the first permanent transatlantic trade route in history
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Camarilla
A camarilla is a group of courtiers or favourites who surround a king or ruler. Usually, they do not hold any office or have any official authority at the royal court but influence their ruler behind the scenes. Consequently, they also escape having to bear responsibility for the effects of their advice. The term derives from the Spanish word camarilla (diminutive of cámara), meaning "little chamber" or private cabinet of the king. It was first used of the circle of cronies around Spanish King
King
Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII
(reigned 1814-1833). The term involves what is known as cronyism
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