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Feast Of Weeks
Shavuot
Shavuot
( listen (help·info)) (or Shovuos ( listen (help·info)), in Ashkenazi usage; Shavuʿoth in Sephardi and Mizrahi Hebrew (Hebrew: שבועות‎, lit. "Weeks"), known as the Feast of Weeks in English and as Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή) in Ancient Greek, is a Jewish holiday
Jewish holiday
that occurs on the sixth day of the Hebrew month of Sivan
Sivan
(may fall between 14 May–15 June).[1] Shavuot
Shavuot
has a double significance
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Shevu'ot
Shevu'ot or Shevuot (Hebrew: שבועות, "Oaths") is a book of the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
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Shabbat
Shabbat
Shabbat
(/ʃəˈbɑːt/; Hebrew: שַׁבָּת‎ [ʃa'bat], "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (['ʃa.bəs], Yiddish: שבת‎) or the Sabbath
Sabbath
is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age. Shabbat
Shabbat
observance entails refraining from work activities, often with great rigor, and engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat
Shabbat
originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins
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Jew (word)
The English term Jew
Jew
originates in the Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
word Yehudi, meaning "from the Tribe of Judah", "from the Kingdom of Judah", or "Jew". It passed into Greek as Ioudaios and Latin as Iudaeus, which evolved into the Old French
Old French
giu after the letter "d" was dropped
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Who Is A Jew?
"Who is a Jew?" (Hebrew: מיהו יהודי‎ pronounced [ˈmihu jehuˈdi]) is a basic question about Jewish identity and considerations of Jewish
Jewish
self-identification. The question is based on ideas about Jewish
Jewish
personhood, which have cultural, ethnic, religious, political, genealogical, and personal dimensions. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
and Conservative Judaism
Judaism
follow the Halakha, deeming a person to be Jewish
Jewish
if their mother is Jewish
Jewish
or they underwent a proper conversion. Reform Judaism
Judaism
and Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
accept both matrilineal and patrilineal descent. Karaite Judaism
Judaism
predominantly follows patrilineal descent. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
is also commonly defined through ethnicity
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Jewish Peoplehood
Jewish
Jewish
peoplehood (Hebrew: עמיות יהודית, Amiut Yehudit) is the conception of the awareness of the underlying unity that makes an individual a part of the Jewish
Jewish
people.[1] The concept of peoplehood has a double meaning. The first is descriptive, as a concept factually describing the existence of the Jews
Jews
as a people. The second is normative, as a value that describes the feeling of belonging and commitment to the Jewish
Jewish
people.[2] Some believe that the concept of Jewish
Jewish
peoplehood is a paradigm shift in Jewish
Jewish
life
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Jewish Identity
Jewish identity
Jewish identity
is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as a Jew and as relating to being Jewish.[1] Under a broader definition, Jewish identity
Jewish identity
does not depend on whether a person is regarded as a Jew by others, or by an external set of religious, or legal, or sociological norms. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
does not need to imply religious orthodoxy. Accordingly, Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can be cultural in nature. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can involve ties to the Jewish community. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
bases Jewishness on matrilineal descent. According to Jewish law (halacha), all those born of a Jewish mother are considered Jewish, regardless of personal beliefs or level of observance of Jewish law. Jews
Jews
who are atheists may have a Jewish identity
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God In Judaism
In Judaism, God
God
is understood to be the absolute one, indivisible, and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Judaism holds that YHWH, the god of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
Jacob
and the national god of the Israelites, delivered the Israelites
Israelites
from slavery in Egypt, and gave them the Law of Moses
Moses
at biblical Mount Sinai as described in the Torah. Traditional interpretations of Judaism
Judaism
generally emphasize that God
God
is personal, while some modern interpretations of Judaism emphasize that God
God
is a force or ideal.[1] The name of God
God
used most often in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
is the Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
( YHWH
YHWH
Hebrew: יהוה)
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Jewish Principles Of Faith
There is no established formulation of principles of faith that are recognized by all branches of Judaism. Central authority in Judaism
Judaism
is not vested in any one person or group - although the Sanhedrin, the supreme Jewish religious court, would fulfill this role when it is re-established - but rather in Judaism's sacred writings, laws, and traditions. The various principles of faith that have been enumerated over the centuries carry no weight other than that imparted to them by the fame and scholarship of their respective authors. Judaism
Judaism
affirms the existence and uniqueness of God
God
and stresses performance of deeds or commandments alongside adherence to a strict belief system
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Mitzvah
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word mitzvah (/ˈmɪtsvə/;[1] meaning "commandment", מִצְוָה‬, [mit͡sˈva], Biblical: miṣwah; plural מִצְווֹת‬ mitzvot [mit͡sˈvot], Biblical: miṣwoth; from צִוָּה‬ ṣiwwah "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God. It is used in rabbinical Judaism
Judaism
to refer to the 613 commandments given in the Torah
Torah
at biblical Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
and the seven rabbinic commandments instituted later for a total of 620. The 613 commandments are divided into two categories: 365 negative commandments and 248 positive commandments. According to the Talmud, all moral laws are, or are derived from, divine commandments. The collection is part of the larger Jewish law or halakha. The opinions of the Talmudic rabbis are divided between those who seek the purpose of the mitzvot and those who do not question them
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613 Commandments
The tradition that 613 commandments
613 commandments
(Hebrew: תרי"ג מצוות‬, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi
Rabbi
Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud
Talmud
Makkot 23b.[1] Although there have been many attempts to codify and enumerate the commandments contained in the Torah, the most traditional enumeration is Maimonides'. The 613 commandments
613 commandments
include "positive commandments", to perform an act (mitzvot aseh), and "negative commandments", to abstain from certain acts (mitzvot lo taaseh)
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Halakha
Halakha (/hɑːˈlɔːxə/;[1] Hebrew: הֲלָכָה‬, Sephardic: [halaˈχa]; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) (Ashkenazic: [haˈloχo]) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah. It is based on biblical laws or "commandments" (mitzvot) (traditionally numbered as 613), subsequent Talmudic and rabbinic law and the customs and traditions compiled in the many books, one of the most famous of which is the 16th-century Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(literally "Prepared Table"). Halakha is often translated as " Jewish
Jewish
Law", although a more literal translation might be "the way to behave" or "the way of walking". The word derives from the root that means "to behave" (also "to go" or "to walk")
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Tzedakah
Tzedakah
Tzedakah
[tsedaˈka] or Ṣ'daqah [sˤəðaːˈqaː] in Classical Hebrew (Hebrew: צדקה‎, is a Hebrew word literally meaning justice or righteousness but commonly used to signify charity - [1] though it is a different concept from the modern English understanding of "charity," which is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity, where as tzedakah is an obligation. In Judaism, tzedakah refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, which Judaism
Judaism
emphasizes is an important part of living a spiritual life. Unlike voluntary philanthropy, tzedakah is seen as a religious obligation that must be performed regardless of financial standing, even by poor people
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Moritz Daniel Oppenheim
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim
(January 7, 1800 in Hanau, Germany – February 26, 1882 in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main) was a German painter who is often regarded as the first Jewish painter of the modern era. His work was informed by his cultural and religious roots at a time when many of his German Jewish contemporaries chose to convert to Christianity. Oppenheim is considered by the scholar Ismar Schorsch to be in sympathy with the ideals of the Wissenschaft des Judentums
Wissenschaft des Judentums
movement, because he remained "fair to the present" without denying his past.Contents1 Biography 2 Selected works 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Oppenheim was born to Orthodox Jewish parents at Hanau, Germany in 1800; he died at Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main in 1882
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Laws And Customs Of The Land Of Israel In Judaism
Laws and customs of the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
in Judaism
Judaism
(Hebrew: מצוות התלויות בארץ‎; translit. Mitzvot Ha'teluyot Be'aretz) are special Jewish laws that apply only to the Land of Israel. According to a standard view, 26 of the 613 mitzvot
613 mitzvot
apply only in the Land of Israel.[1] Overall, the laws and customs may be classified as follows:Laws that were in force at the time of the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
and in connection with the Temple service
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Brit Milah
The brit milah (Hebrew: בְּרִית מִילָה‬, pronounced [bʁit miˈla]; Ashkenazi pronunciation: [bʁis ˈmilə], "covenant of circumcision"; Yiddish
Yiddish
pronunciation: bris [bʀɪs]) is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel ("circumciser") on the eighth day of the infant's life
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