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Father Christmas
FATHER CHRISTMAS is the traditional English name for the personification of Christmas
Christmas
. Although now known as a Christmas gift-bringer , and normally considered to be synonymous with Western culture 's Santa Claus
Santa Claus
which is now known worldwide, he was originally part of an unrelated and much older English folkloric tradition. The recognisably modern figure of the English Father Christmas
Christmas
developed in the late Victorian period , but Christmas
Christmas
had been personified for centuries before then. English personifications of Christmas
Christmas
were first recorded in the 15th century, with Father Christmas
Christmas
himself first appearing in the mid 17th century in the aftermath of the English Civil War
English Civil War

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Thomas Nabbes
THOMAS NABBES (1605 – 6 April 1641) was an English dramatist . He was born in humble circumstances in Worcestershire , and educated at Exeter College, Oxford in 1621. He left the university without taking a degree, and in about 1630 began a career in London as a dramatist. He was employed at some point in the household of a nobleman near Worcester, and seems to have been of a convivial disposition. He had at least two children, Bridget and William, both of whom died within two years of his death, and were buried with him at St Giles in the Fields . CONTENTS * 1 Burial * 2 Works * 3 The Unfortunate Mother * 4 Selected works * 5 References BURIALFor centuries there was uncertainty about Nabbes' fate and burial. In a 1628 poem he expressed hope that one day he would be worthy of entombment at Worcester Cathedral in his native Worcestershire, while an 18th-century theatre historian insisted he was interred at London's Temple Church
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Masque
The MASQUE was a form of festive courtly entertainment that flourished in 16th- and early 17th-century Europe, though it was developed earlier in Italy
Italy
, in forms including the intermedio (a public version of the masque was the pageant ). A masque involved music and dancing, singing and acting, within an elaborate stage design , in which the architectural framing and costumes might be designed by a renowned architect, to present a deferential allegory flattering to the patron. Professional actors and musicians were hired for the speaking and singing parts. Often the masquers, who did not speak or sing, were courtiers: the English queen Anne of Denmark frequently danced with her ladies in masques between 1603 and 1611, and Henry VIII and Charles I of England
Charles I of England
performed in the masques at their courts
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Shrovetide
SHROVETIDE, also known as the PRE-LENTEN SEASON, is the Christian period of preparation before the beginning of the liturgical season of Lent
Lent
. Shrovetide
Shrovetide
starts on Septuagesima Sunday , includes Sexagesima Sunday , Quinquagesima Sunday (commonly called Shrove Sunday), as well as Shrove Monday , and culminates on Shrove Tuesday . One hallmark of Shrovetide
Shrovetide
is the merrymaking associated with Carnival
Carnival

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Puritanism
The PURITANS were a group of English Reformed
Reformed
Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England
Church of England
from its "Catholic " practices, maintaining that the Church of England
Church of England
was only partially reformed
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English Reformation
Waldensians · Savonarola · Lollards · Western Schism · Hussites · Northern Renaissance · German mysticism Start of the Reformation
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Protestantism
PROTESTANTISM is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians
Christians
. It originated with the Reformation , a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Ever since, Protestants reject the Roman Catholic
Catholic
doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments , but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
Eucharist
. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers , justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than by good works , and the highest authority of the Bible
Bible
alone (rather than with sacred tradition ) in faith and morals (sola scriptura )
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Ben Jonson
BENJAMIN "BEN" JONSON (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of humours . He is best known for the satirical plays Every Man in His Humour (1598), Volpone, or The Fox (c. 1606), The Alchemist (1610) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) and for his lyric poetry ; he is generally regarded as the second most important English playwright during the reign of James I after William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare

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Stuart Period
The STUART PERIOD of British history usually refers to the period between 1603 and 1714 and sometimes from 1371 in Scotland. This coincides with the rule of the House of Stuart
House of Stuart
, whose first monarch of Scotland was Robert II but who during the reign of James VI of Scotland also inherited the throne of England
England
. The period ended with the death of Queen Anne and the accession of George I from the House of Hanover . The period was plagued by internal and religious strife, and a large-scale civil war. Charles I was executed in 1649, and his son Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660. His brother James II was overthrown in 1689 because he was Catholic. He was replaced by his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William III
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Inn Of Court
The INNS OF COURT in London
London
are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales. All barristers must belong to one such association. They have supervisory and disciplinary functions over their members. The Inns also provide libraries, dining facilities and professional accommodation. Each also has a church or chapel attached to it and is a self-contained precinct where barristers traditionally train and practise, although growth in the legal profession , together with a desire to practise from more modern accommodations, caused many barristers' chambers to move outside the precincts of the Inns of Court
Inns of Court
in the late 20th century
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Summer's Last Will And Testament
SUMMER\'S LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT is an Elizabethan stage play, a comedy written by Thomas Nashe . The play is notable for breaking new ground in the development of English Renaissance drama : "No earlier English comedy has anything like the intellectual content or the social relevance that it has." Although Nashe is known as an Elizabethan playwright, Summer's Last Will and Testament is his only extant solo-authored play; his other surviving dramatic work, Dido, Queen of Carthage , is a collaboration with Christopher Marlowe , in which Nashe's role was probably very minimal. CONTENTS * 1 Publication * 2 Date and performance * 3 Genre * 4 Modern adaptation * 5 References * 6 External links PUBLICATIONThe play was entered into the Stationers\' Register on 28 October 1600, and was published before the end of that year in a quarto printed by Simon Stafford for the bookseller Walter Burre
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Thomas Nashe
THOMAS NASHE (baptised November 1567 – c. 1601) is considered the greatest of the English Elizabethan pamphleteers . :5 He was a playwright , poet , and satirist . He is best known for his novel The Unfortunate Traveller . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 In London, Marprelate controversy * 3 Erotica * 4 Feud with the Harvey brothers * 5 Major works * 6 Chronology of Nashe\'s works * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links EARLY LIFEThomas Nashe was the son of the parson William Nashe and Margaret (née Witchingham). He was born and baptised in Lowestoft , on the coast of Suffolk , where his father, William Nashe, or Nayshe as it is recorded, was curate. Though his mother bore seven children, only two survived childhood: Israel (born in 1565) and Thomas. :11 The family moved to West Harling , near Thetford in 1573 after Nashe's father was awarded the living there at the church of All Saints
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Interregnum (1649–1660)
The "INTERREGNUM " in England, Scotland, and Ireland started with the execution of Charles I in January 1649 (September 1651 in Scotland) and was decisively ended in May 1660 when his son Charles II was restored to the thrones of the three realms, although he had been already acclaimed king in Scotland since 1650. The precise start and end of the interregnum, as well as the social and political events that occurred during the interregnum, varied in the three kingdoms and the English dominions. CONTENTS * 1 Prelude * 2 England * 3 Ireland * 4 Scotland * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References PRELUDEAfter the Second English Civil War
Second English Civil War
the leadership of the New Model Army felt deeply betrayed by the King because they thought that while they had been negotiating in good faith he had duplicitously gone behind their backs in making The Engagement with the Scots and encouraging a new civil war
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Parliament Of The United Kingdom
HM GOVERNMENT * Conservative Party (248)CONFIDENCE AND SUPPLY * Democratic Unionist Party (3)HM MOST LOYAL OPPOSITION * Labour Party (197)OTHER OPPOSITION * Liberal Democrats (100) * Non-affiliated (26) * UKIP (3) * Ind. Labour (2) * Ulster Unionist Party
Ulster Unionist Party
(2) * Green Party (1) * Ind. Social Democrat (1) * Ind
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Commonwealth Of England
The COMMONWEALTH was the period from 1649 onwards when England
England
and Wales
Wales
, later along with Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland
Scotland
, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I . The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England
England
to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament
Rump Parliament
on 19 May 1649. Power in the early Commonwealth
Commonwealth
was vested primarily in the Parliament and a Council of State . During the period, fighting continued, particularly in Ireland and Scotland, between the parliamentary forces and those opposed to them, as part of what is now referred to as the Third English Civil War
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Samuel Pepys
SAMUEL PEPYS FRS (/ˈpiːps/ PEEPS ; 23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary that he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man. Pepys had no maritime experience, but he rose to be the Chief Secretary to the Admiralty under both King Charles II and King James II through patronage , hard work, and his talent for administration. His influence and reforms at the Admiralty were important in the early professionalisation of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
. The detailed private diary that Pepys kept from 1660 until 1669 was first published in the 19th century and is one of the most important primary sources for the English Restoration
English Restoration
period
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