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Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
is a town in the Agra
Agra
District of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city itself was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in 1571 by Emperor Akbar, serving this role from 1571 to 1585, when Akbar abandoned it due to a campaign in Punjab and was later completely abandoned in 1610.[1] The name of the city derives from the village called Sikri which occupied the spot before. An Archaeological Survey of India
India
(ASI) excavation from 1999-2000 indicated that there was a habitation here before Akbar
Akbar
built his capital. It was also a much-loved place of Babur
Babur
who called it Shukri for its lake of water needed for his armies. He used it for relaxation and also defeated Rana Sanga
Rana Sanga
on its outskirts. The khanqah of Sheikh Salim existed earlier at this place
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Timur
Timur[2] (Persian: تیمور‎ Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir
Amir
Timur
Timur
and Tamerlane[3] (Persian: تيمور لنگ‎ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire
Timurid Empire
in Persia
Persia
and Central Asia, he became the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty.[4] According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur's background was Iranized and not steppe nomadic.[5] Born into the Barlas
Barlas
confederation in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
(in modern-day Uzbekistan) on 9 April 1336, Timur
Timur
gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
by 1370
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Baburnama
Bāburnāma (Chagatai/Persian: بابر نامہ‬‎;´, literally: "Book of Babur" or "Letters of Babur"; alternatively known as Tuzk-e Babri) is the name given to the memoirs of Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muhammad Bābur (1483–1530), founder of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur. It is an autobiographical work, written in the Chagatai language, known to Babur
Babur
as "Turki" (meaning Turkic), the spoken language of the Andijan-Timurids. According to historian Stephen Frederic Dale, Babur's prose is highly Persianized in its sentence structure, morphology, and vocabulary,[1] and also contains many phrases and smaller poems in Persian
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Sheikh (Sufism)
A Sheikh
Sheikh
or sheik (Arabic: شيخ shaykh; ; pl. شيوخ shuyūkh), of Sufism
Sufism
is a Sufi
Sufi
who is authorized to teach, initiate and guide aspiring dervishes in the islamic faith. The sheik is vital to the path of the novice Sufi, for the sheik has himself travelled the path of mysticism. Viewed as the spiritual master, the sheik forms a formal allegiance (bay'a) to the disciple of Sufism
Sufism
and authorizes the disciple's travels and helps the disciple along the mystical path.[1] Islamic tradition focuses on the importance of chains and legitimization. In Sufism, sheiks are connected by a continuous spiritual chain (isnad, sanad, silsila). This chain links every previous Sufi
Sufi
sheik, and eventually can be traced back to the Successors, and in later times to the Prophet himself
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Jainism
Jainism
Jainism
(/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/),[1] traditionally known as Jain
Jain
Dharma,[2] is an ancient Indian religion.[3] Followers of Jainism
Jainism
are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life.[4] Jains
Jains
trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra
Mahāvīra
around 500 BCE
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Rishabhanatha
Rushabhanatha or Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
(also Ṛṣabhadeva, Rushabhadeva, Rishabhadeva, or Ṛṣabha which literally means "bull") is the first Tirthankara
Tirthankara
(ford maker) in Jainism.[5][6] Jain legends depict him as having lived millions of years ago.[7][4] He was the first of twenty four lords in the present half cycle of time in Jain cosmology, and called a ford maker because his teachings helped one across the sea of interminable rebirths and deaths (saṃsāra)
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Mahavira
Mahavira
Mahavira
(/məˌhɑːˈvɪərə/; IAST: Bhagavān Mahāvīra), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara
Tirthankara
(ford-maker) of Jainism. In the Jain tradition, it is believed that Mahavira
Mahavira
was born in the early part of the 6th century BC into a royal family in what is now Bihar, India. At the age of thirty, abandoning all worldly possessions, he left his home in pursuit of spiritual awakening and became an ascetic. For the next twelve and a half years, Mahavira
Mahavira
practiced intense meditation and severe austerities, after which he is believed to have attained Kevala Jnana
Kevala Jnana
(omniscience). He preached for thirty years, and is believed by Jains to have died in the 6th century BC
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Jain Community
The Jains in India are the last direct representatives of the ancient Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
tradition. They follow Jainism, the religion taught by the twenty-four propagators of faith called tirthankaras. The total Jain population is estimated to be 7+ million people worldwide.Contents1 Sangha 2 Cultural influence 3 Communities3.1 Central India 3.2 Western India 3.3 Northern India 3.4 Southern India 3.5 Eastern India 3.6 Overseas Jains4 Population 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksSangha[edit] Jainism
Jainism
has a fourfold order of muni (male monastics), aryika (female monastics), Śrāvaka (layman) and sravika (laywoman). This order is known as a sangha.[citation needed] Cultural influence[edit] The Jains have the highest literacy rate in India, 94.1.% compared with the national average of 65.38%
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Annette Beveridge
Annette Susannah Beveridge (née Akroyd) (1842–1929) was a British Orientalist known for her translation of the Humayun-nama[1] and the Babur-nama.[2]Contents1 Background and education 2 Work in India 3 Translation 4 Marriage and children 5 ReferencesBackground and education[edit] Annette Akroyd's father William Akroyd was a Unitarian industrialist associated with the establishment of the Bedford College, London
Bedford College, London
in 1849, where she completed her study in 1863.[3] Work in India[edit]Annette Akroyd with the students of Hindu Mahila Vidyalaya, 1875.In October 1872 she sailed for British India. Around 1875 she was involved in a public controversy with Keshub Chandra Sen, an Indian philosopher and social reformer who attempted to incorporate Christian theology within the framework of Hindu thought
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Diacritic
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, or diacritical sign – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
διακριτικός (diakritikós, "distinguishing"), from διακρίνω (diakrī́nō, "to distinguish"). Diacritic
Diacritic
is primarily an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical is only ever an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the acute ( ´ ) and grave ( ` ), are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters. The main use of diacritical marks in the Latin script
Latin script
is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added
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Rajputana
Rājputāna (Rajasthani/Hindi: राजपूताना), meaning “Land of the Rajputs”,[1] was a region in India
India
that included mainly the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
along with parts of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat[1] and some adjoining areas of Sindh
Sindh
in modern-day southern Pakistan.[2] The main settlements were to the west of the Aravalli Hills, and was known as Gurjaratra, the earlier form of Gujarat, before it came to be known as Rajputana, early in the Medieval Period.[3] The name was later adopted by British government as the Rajputana Agency
Rajputana Agency
for its dependencies in the region of the present-day Indian state of Rājasthān.[4] The Rajputana
Rajputana
Agency included 18 princely states, two chiefships and the British district of Ajmer-Merwara
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Rana Sangha
Maharana Sangram Singh (12 April 1482 – 30 January 1528) commonly known as Rana Sanga, was Rana of Mewar
Mewar
and head of a powerful Hindu Rajput
Rajput
confederacy in Rajputana
Rajputana
during the 16th century. He belonged to Sisodiya
Sisodiya
clan of Rajput. Rana ruled between 1508 and 1528.[1] Rana Sanga
Rana Sanga
succeeded his father, Rana Raimal, as king of Mewar
Mewar
in 1508. He fought against the Afghan Lodhi dynasty
Lodhi dynasty
of Delhi Sultanate, and later against the Mughals. Life[edit]Chittorgarh Fort, Chittor Rana Sanga
Rana Sanga
was a grandson of Rana Kumbha. Sanga became the ruler of Mewar
Mewar
after a battle for succession with his brothers.[2] As ruler of Mewar
Mewar
he expanded the boundaries of his Kingdom
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Gulbadan Begum
Gulbadan Begum
Begum
(c. 1523 – 7 February 1603) was a Mughal princess and the youngest daughter of Emperor Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire and the first Mughal emperor.[1] She is best known as the author of Humayun-Nama, the account of the life of her half-brother, Emperor Humayun, which she wrote on the request of her nephew, Emperor Akbar.[2] Gulbadan Begum
Begum
("Princess Rose-Body")[3] was about eight years old at the time of her father's death in 1530 and was brought up by her older half-brother, Humayun. She grew up to be a highly educated and well-cultured lady and was married to a Chagatai Mughal noble, Khizr Khwaja Khan,[4] at the age of seventeen. She enjoyed a very happy and prosperous family life and stayed most of the time at Kabul
Kabul
when, in 1557, she was invited by her nephew, Akbar, to join the imperial household at Agra
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Baoli
Stepwells are wells or ponds in which the water is reached by descending a set of steps. They may be multi-storied with a bullock turning a water wheel to raise the well water to the first or second floor. They are most common in western India
India
and are also found in the other more arid regions of the Indian subcontinent, extending into Pakistan. The construction of stepwells is mainly utilitarian, though they may include embellishments of architectural significance, and be temple tanks. Stepwells are examples of the many types of storage and irrigation tanks that were developed in India, mainly to cope with seasonal fluctuations in water availability. A basic difference between stepwells on the one hand, and tanks and wells on the other, is to make it easier for people to reach the ground water and to maintain and manage the well. The builders dug deep trenches into the earth for dependable, year-round groundwater
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Hiran Minar
Hiran Minar
Hiran Minar
(Urdu: ہرن مینار‬‎; or "The Deer Tower") is an early 17th-century Mughal-era complex located in the town of Sheikhupura, in the Pakistani province of Punjab. The complex was built at the site of a game reserve in honour of Mughal Emperor Jahangir's pet antelope. The Emperor is remembered for his fondness of nature,[2] and his complex embodies the Mughal relationship between humans, pets, and hunting.[3]Contents1 Location 2 History 3 Layout3.1 Minaret 3.2 Pool 3.3 Pavilion 3.4 Causeway4 Hydraulics 5 Gallery 6 References 7 External linksLocation[edit] The Hiran Minar
Hiran Minar
complex is located in the city of Sheikhupura, about 40 kilometres northwest of Lahore. The complex is located near the Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura
Fort, which also dates from the early 17th century
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