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Fascism And Ideology
The history of Fascist ideology is long and it involves many sources. Fascists took inspiration from as far back as the Spartans for their focus on racial purity and their emphasis on rule by an elite minority. It has also been connected to the ideals of Plato, though there are key differences. In Italy, Fascism
Fascism
styled itself as the ideological successor to Rome, particularly the Roman Empire. The Enlightenment-era concept of a "high and noble" Aryan
Aryan
culture[dubious – discuss] as opposed to a "parasitic" Semitic culture
Semitic culture
was core to Nazi racial views. From the same era, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's view on the absolute authority of the state also strongly influenced Fascist thinking
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Second Sino-Japanese War
Chinese Nationalists (including regional warlords):1,700,000 (1937)[1] 2,600,000 (1939)[2] 5,700,000 (1945)[3] Chinese Communists:166,700 (1938)[4] 488,744 (1940)[5] 1,200,000 (1945)[6] Japanese:600,000 (1937)[7] 1,015,000 (1939)[8] 1,124,900 (1945)[9] (excluding Burma campaign
Burma campaign
and Manchuria) Puppet states and collaborators: 900,000 (1945)[10]Casualties and lossesChinese Nationalists:Official ROC data:1,320,000 killed 1,797,000 wounded 120,000 missing Total: 3,237,000[11][12]Othe
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New Man (utopian Concept)
The New Man is a utopian concept that involves the creation of a new ideal human being or citizen replacing un-ideal human beings or citizens
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Aleksandr Dugin
Aleksandr Gelyevich Dugin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ге́льевич Ду́гин; born 7 January 1962) is a Russian political analyst, strategist and philosopher known for his fascist views,[5][6][7] who calls to hasten the "end of times" with all-out war.[8][9][10][11][12] He has close ties with the Kremlin and the Russian military,[13][14] having served as an advisor to State Duma
State Duma
speaker Gennadiy Seleznyov[15] and key member of the ruling United Russia
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Nationalism
Nationalism
Nationalism
is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over the group's homeland. The political ideology therefore holds that a nation should govern itself, free from unwanted outside interference, and is linked to the concept of self-determination. Nationalism
Nationalism
is further oriented towards developing and maintaining a national identity based on shared characteristics such as culture, language, race, religion, political goals or a belief in a common ancestry.[1][2] Nationalism
Nationalism
therefore seeks to preserve the nation's culture. It often also involves a sense of pride in the nation's achievements, and is closely linked to the concept of patriotism
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My Autobiography (Mussolini)
My Autobiography
Autobiography
is a book by Benito Mussolini. It is a dictated, narrative autobiography recounting the author's youth, his years as an agitator and journalist, his experiences in World War I, the formation and revolutionary struggles of the Fascist Party, the March on Rome, and his early years in power. It was first published in 1928; Richard Washburn Child, together with Luigi Barzini, Jr., served as the book's ghostwriter.Contents1 Background 2 Publishing history 3 Contents 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] Mussolini dictated parts of the text to his brother Arnaldo Mussolini who handed the manuscripts, together with other material supplied by Mussolini's lover Margherita Sarfatti, to Richard Washburn Child
Richard Washburn Child
(the former American ambassador to Italy). Child served together with Luigi Barzini, Jr. as a ghostwriter for the autobiography, which was mainly aimed at readers in the U.S
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Autarky
Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient. Usually the term is applied to political states or their economic systems. Autarky exists whenever an entity can survive or continue its activities without external assistance or international trade. If a self-sufficient economy also refuses all trade with the outside world then it is called a closed economy.[1] Autarky is not necessarily an economic phenomenon; for example, a military autarky would be a state that could defend itself without help from another country, or could manufacture all of its weapons without any imports from the outside world. Autarky as an ideal or method has been embraced by a wide range of political ideologies and movements, especially left-wing creeds like mutualism, Council Communism, Syndicalism, Democratic Confederalism, and Populism
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Beer Hall Putsch
Nazi Party Sturmabteilung Weimar Republic Bavaria
Bavaria
Free State ReichswehrCommanders and leaders Adolf Hitler (WIA) Erich Ludendorff Ernst Röhm Rudolf Hess Scheubner-Richter † Hermann Göring (WIA) Gustav von Kahr Eugen von Knilling Hans von Seisser Otto von LossowMilitary support2,000+ 130Casualties and losses16 killed About a dozen injured Many captured and imprisoned 4 killed Several woundedThe Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich
Munich
Putsch,[1] and, in German, as the Hitlerputsch, Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch, Bürgerbräu-Putsch or mostly Marsch auf die Feldherrnhalle, was a failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP) leader Adolf Hitler—along with Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff
Erich Ludendorff
and other Kampfbund leaders—to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, during 8–9 November 1923
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Pacification Of Libya
Italian victoryDefeat of the Cyrenaican and Tripolitanian rebels Stabilization of Italian rule in Libya Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
of the Cyrenaican indigenous population.[1] Mass deaths of Cyrenaican indigenous civilians.[2] Execution of Senussi
Senussi
Cyrenaican rebel leader Omar Mukhtar.Belligerents Italy
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Imperialism
Imperialism
Imperialism
is an action that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of inhabited territory. It may also include the exploitation of these territories, an action that is linked to colonialism. Colonialism
Colonialism
is generally regarded as an expression of imperialism. It is different from New Imperialism, as the term imperialism is usually applied to the colonization of the Americas between the 15th and 19th centuries, as opposed to the expansion of Western Powers (and Japan) during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, both are examples of imperialism.Contents1 Etymology and usage 2 Colonialism
Colonialism
vs
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Social Order
The term social order can be used in two senses. In the first sense, it refers to a particular set or system of linked social structures, institutions, relations, customs, values and practices, which conserve, maintain and enforce certain patterns of relating and behaving. Examples are the ancient, the feudal, and the capitalist social order. In the second sense, social order is contrasted to social chaos or disorder and refers to a stable state of society in which the existing social order is accepted and maintained by its members
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German Federal Election, November 1932
Franz von Papen Non-partisanElected Chancellor None (Schleicher appointed shortly afterward)GermanyThis article is part of a series on the politics and government of GermanyConstitution (Basic Law)Human rights Federal Constitutional CourtExecutivePresidentFrank-Walter SteinmeierChancellor (List)Angela MerkelVice-ChancellorOlaf ScholzCabinetMerkel IVLegislatureFederal Convention (Bundesversammlung)Federal Council (Bundesrat) Federal Diet (Bundestag)Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Ausschuss)JudiciaryFederal courtsConstitutional Administrative Justice Fiscal Labour SocialAdministrative divisionsStates (Länder)Administrative regions (Regierungsbezirke)Districts (Kreise) Collective municipalities (Ämter) Municipalities (Gemeinden)ElectionsElectoral system Political parties ReferendumsForeign relatio
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Dictatorship
Dictatorship
Dictatorship
is a system of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by a single party or individual (a dictator) or by a polity and power is exercised through various mechanisms to ensure that the entity's power remains strong.[1][2] A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the West. In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared
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Enabling Act Of 1933
The Enabling Act (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet – in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
– the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag. It passed in both the Reichstag and Reichsrat on 24 March 1933,[1][2][3] and was signed by President Paul von Hindenburg later that day. The act stated that it was to last four years unless renewed by the Reichstag, which occurred twice. The Enabling Act gave Hitler
Hitler
plenary powers. It followed on the heels of the Reichstag Fire Decree, which abolished most civil liberties and transferred state powers to the Reich government
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Criticism Of Democracy
Democracy
Democracy
may be criticized as economically inefficient, politically unrealistic, dysfunctional, morally corrupt or sociopolitically suboptimal. Important figures associated with anti-democratic thought include Martin Heidegger, Hubert Lagardelle, Charles Maurras, Friedrich Nietzsche, Plato, Aristotle, Carl Schmitt, Hans-Hermann Hoppe, Oswald Spengler, Nicolás Gómez Dávila, and Elazar Menachem Shach. A variety of ideologies and political systems have opposed democracy, including absolute monarchy, aristocracy, Nazism, fascism, theocracy, neo-feudalism and anarcho-capitalism. Democracy
Democracy
is also subject to criticism from pro-democratic thought that tends to acknowledge its flaws but stresses a lack of appealing alternatives. An example is Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
who remarked, "No one pretends that democracy is perfect or all-wise
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