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Fare Evasion
FARE EVASION or TICKET EVASION, as distinct from fare avoidance or ticket avoidance, is the act of travelling on public transport in disregard of the law and/or regulation , having deliberately not purchased the required ticket to travel (having had the chance to do so). It is a problem in many parts of the world, and revenue protection officers operate on many systems. Often ticket barriers, manned or automatic, are in place at stations etc., to ensure only those with valid tickets may access the transport. Fare evasion and fare fraud is generally a crime in most jurisdictions. The fare not paid, compared to potential penalties and hassle, is generally considered “not worth it”. One method of fare evasion is jumping over the turnstiles which mark the entryway into a subway system; hence the term, “turnstile jumping”
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Newark City Subway
The NEWARK LIGHT RAIL (NLR) is a light rail system under New Jersey Transit Bus Operations serving Newark, New Jersey . The service consists of two segments, the original NEWARK CITY SUBWAY (NCS), and the extension to Broad Street station . The combined service was officially inaugurated on July 17, 2006. CONTENTS* 1 Newark City Subway * 1.1 History * 1.2 Bloomfield extension * 1.2.1 Shared-track operation * 2 Broad Street Extension * 3 Fares * 4 Stations * 4.1 Newark City Subway * 4.2 Broad Street Extension * 5 Rolling stock * 6 Timeline * 6.1 Historic dates * 6.2 Accidents * 7 In popular culture * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links NEWARK CITY SUBWAY PCC streetcar at Newark Penn Station in 2001, signed as 7 City Subway. The Newark City Subway service is the longer and older of the two segments
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CharlieCard
The CHARLIECARD is a MIFARE -based contactless smart card used for automated fare collection by the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). The CharlieCard
CharlieCard
was made available to the general public beginning December 4, 2006. The last metal token was sold on December 6, 2006, at Government Center station. The CharlieCard
CharlieCard
is named after a fictional character in a folk music song "M.T.A. ", often called "Charlie on the MTA", which concerns a man trapped forever on the Boston
Boston
subway system – then known as the Metropolitan Transit Authority, or MTA – because he cannot pay the 5-cent surcharge required to leave the train. Since the card's introduction, the Charlie character has been used on a variety of MBTA signs, including construction and directional signage
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Port Authority Trans-Hudson
PORT AUTHORITY TRANS-HUDSON, abbreviated PATH, is a rapid transit system serving Newark , Harrison , Hoboken , and Jersey City in metropolitan northern New Jersey
New Jersey
, as well as lower and midtown Manhattan
Manhattan
in New York City
New York City
. The PATH is operated by, and named after, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
. PATH trains run 24 hours a day and 7 days a week . The system has a total route length of 13.8 miles (22.2 km), not double-counting route overlaps. As of October 2016 , PATH had an average weekday ridership of 276,417. PATH trains use tunnels only in Manhattan, Hoboken, and downtown Jersey City. The tracks cross the Hudson River
Hudson River
through century-old cast iron tubes that rest on the river bottom under a thin layer of silt
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Ticket Barrier
A TURNSTILE, also called a BAFFLE GATE or TURNSTYLE, is a form of gate which allows one person to pass at a time. It can also be made so as to enforce one-way traffic of people , and in addition, it can restrict passage only to people who insert a coin, a ticket, a pass, or similar. Thus a turnstile can be used in the case of paid access (sometimes called a faregate or ticket barrier when used for this purpose), for example to access public transport , a pay toilet , or to restrict access to authorized people, for example in the lobby of an office building
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Madrid
MADRID (/məˈdrɪd/ , Spanish: , locally ) is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has almost 3.166 million inhabitants with a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union
European Union
(EU) after London
London
and Berlin , and its metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU after those of London
London
and Paris
Paris
. The municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2 (233.3 sq mi)
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Incarceration
IMPRISONMENT (from imprison Old French, French emprisonner, from en in + prison prison, from Latin prensio, arrest, from prehendere, prendere, to seize) is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority. In the latter case it is "false imprisonment ". Imprisonment does not necessarily imply a place of confinement, with bolts and bars, but may be exercised by any use or display of force, lawfully or unlawfully, wherever displayed, even in the open street. People become prisoners, wherever they may be, by the mere word or touch of a duly authorized officer directed to that end. Usually, however, imprisonment is understood to imply an actual confinement in a jail or prison employed for the purpose according to the provisions of the law
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Court
A COURT is a tribunal , often as a government institution , with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil , criminal , and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law . In both common law and civil law legal systems , courts are the central means for dispute resolution , and it is generally understood that all persons have an ability to bring their claims before a court. Similarly, the rights of those accused of a crime include the right to present a defense before a court. The system of courts that interprets and applies the law is collectively known as the judiciary . The place where a court sits is known as a venue . The room where court proceedings occur is known as a courtroom , and the building as a courthouse ; court facilities range from simple and very small facilities in rural communities to large buildings in cities
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Conviction
In law , a CONVICTION is the verdict that usually results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of a crime . The opposite of a conviction is an acquittal (i.e. "not guilty"). In Scotland
Scotland
and in the Netherlands
Netherlands
, there can also be a verdict of "not proven ", which counts as an acquittal. There are also cases where the court orders that a defendant not be convicted, despite being found guilty; in England, Wales, Canada, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand the mechanism for this is a discharge . For a host of reasons, the criminal justice system is not perfect, and sometimes guilty defendants are acquitted, while innocent people are convicted. Appeal
Appeal
mechanisms and post conviction relief procedures may mitigate the effects of a conviction to some extent. An error which results in the conviction of an innocent person is known as a miscarriage of justice
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Misdemeanor
A MISDEMEANOR ( American English
American English
) or MISDEMEANOUR (English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems. Misdemeanors are generally punished less severely than felonies , but theoretically more so than administrative infractions (also known as minor, petty, or summary offences ) and regulatory offences . Many misdemeanors are punished with monetary fines
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Police Officer
A POLICE OFFICER, also known as a POLICEMAN, POLICEWOMAN, POLICE AGENT, or a POLICE EMPLOYEE is a warranted law employee of a police force . In most countries, "police officer" is a generic term not specifying a particular rank. In most police departments of the United States, "police officer" or "officer" is also the rank held by a regular police officer (i.e. one without supervisory duties). In some nations the use of the rank "officer" is legally reserved for military personnel. Police
Police
officers are generally charged with the apprehension of criminals and the prevention and detection of crime , protection and assistance of the general public, and the maintenance of public order. Police
Police
officers may be sworn to an oath , and have the power to arrest people and detain them for a limited time, along with other duties and powers
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Traffic Ticket
A TRAFFIC TICKET is a notice issued by a law enforcement official to a motorist or other road user , indicating that the user has violated traffic laws . Traffic
Traffic
tickets generally come in two forms, citing a moving violation , such as exceeding the speed limit , or a non-moving violation, such as a parking violation , with the ticket also being referred to as a PARKING CITATION, NOTICE OF ILLEGAL PARKING or PARKING TICKET. In some jurisdictions, a traffic ticket constitutes a notice that a penalty, such as a fine or deduction of points , has been or will be assessed against the driver or owner of a vehicle; failure to pay generally leads to prosecution or to civil recovery proceedings for the fine. In others, the ticket constitutes only a citation and summons to appear at traffic court , with a determination of guilt to be made only in court
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Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain Reino de España (Spanish ) 6 other official names * ARAGONESE : Reino d'Espanya ASTURIAN : Reinu d'España BASQUE : Espainiako Erresuma CATALAN : Regne d'Espanya GALICIAN : Reino de España OCCITAN : Reiaume d'Espanha Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real " (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain
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Manual Fare Collection
MANUAL FARE COLLECTION is the practice of collecting fares manually (without the aid of an automated machine ). " Fare collection" generally refers to the collection of fares in the transport industry in return for a ticket or passes to travel. Commonly used on buses and train transport systems (in the UK; in Poland
Poland
, for example, buying and validating the tickets by machine is the passenger's task; the passengers enter the bus through any of the doors and buying a ticket from the driver is an option where there is no automatic selling machine or if somebody forgets to buy a ticket before), manual fare collection is increasingly becoming obsolete with the introduction of smart cards such as the Transport for London
Transport for London
' Oyster card
Oyster card
'
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Daily News (New York)
The NEW YORK DAILY NEWS, officially titled DAILY NEWS, is an American newspaper based in New York City
New York City
. As of May 2016, it was the ninth-most widely circulated daily newspaper in the United States. It was founded in 1919, and was the first U.S. daily printed in tabloid format . It is owned by Mortimer Zuckerman
Mortimer Zuckerman
, and is headquartered at 4 New York Plaza in Lower Manhattan . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Editorial stance and style * 3 Headquarters * 4 Printing facilities * 5 Pulitzer Prizes * 6 Noteworthy front pages * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY February 5, 1921 front page The Daily News was founded by Joseph Medill Patterson in 1919, as the ILLUSTRATED DAILY NEWS
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