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Family
In the context of human society, a family (from Latin: familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family"[citation needed] [...] from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave [...]'[1]) or some combination of these.[citation needed] Members of the immediate family may include spouses, parents, brothers, sisters, sons, and daughters[citation needed]. Members of the extended family may include grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephews, nieces, and siblings-in-law[citation needed]
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Sororate
Sororate marriage is a type of marriage in which a husband engages in marriage or sexual relations with the sister of his wife, usually after the death of his wife or if his wife has proven infertile.[1] From an anthropological standpoint, this type of marriage strengthens the ties between both groups (the wife's family or clan and the husband's) and preserves the contract between the two to provide children and continue the alliance. The Inuit
Inuit
people (formerly known as Eskimos) of northern Alaska, Canada
Canada
and Greenland
Greenland
follow or followed this custom
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Geneva
Geneva
Geneva
(/dʒɪˈniːvə/, French: Genève [ʒənɛv], Arpitan: Genèva [dzəˈnɛva], German: Genf [ɡɛnf], Italian: Ginevra [dʒiˈneːvra], Romansh: Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland
Switzerland
(after Zürich) and is the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland
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Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland
(/ˈswɪtsərlənd/), officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern
Bern
is the seat of the federal authorities.[1][2][note 1] The country is situated in Western-Central Europe,[note 4] and is bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi))
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Lineage (anthropology)
A lineage is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor. Unilineal lineages can be matrilineal or patrilineal, depending on whether they are traced through mothers or fathers, respectively. Whether matrilineal or patrilineal descent is considered most significant differs from culture to culture.This article relating to anthropology is a stub
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House Society
In anthropology, a house society is a society where kinship and political relations are organized around membership in corporately-organized dwellings rather than around descent groups or lineages, as in the "House of Windsor". The concept was originally proposed by Claude Lévi-Strauss
Claude Lévi-Strauss
who called them "sociétés à maison".[1][2] The concept has been applied to understand the organization of societies from Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
and the Moluccas
Moluccas
to North Africa and medieval Europe.[3][4] The House society
House society
is a hybrid, transitional form between kin-based and class-based social orders, and is not one of Lévi-Strauss' 'elementary structures' of kinship. Lévi-Strauss introduced the concept as an alternative to 'corporate kinship group' among the cognatic kinship groups of the Pacific region
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Levirate Marriage
Levirate marriage is a type of marriage in which the brother of a deceased man is obliged to marry his brother's widow. The term levirate is itself a derivative of the Latin
Latin
word levir meaning "husband's brother". Levirate marriage has been practiced by societies with a strong clan structure in which exogamous marriage (i.e. marriage outside the clan) was forbidden. It has been known in many societies around the world. Although levirate marriage has some similarity to widow inheritance (where the deceased husband's kin can dictate whom the widow may marry, be it one of the deceased husband's kin or an unrelated person) it is nonetheless distinct. The distinction between widow inheritance versus levirate marriage is that, in some societies, levirate marriage does not give the deceased husband's kin the right to force the widow to marry one of her deceased husband's kin (usually a brother)
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Classificatory Kinship
Classificatory kinship systems, as defined by Lewis Henry Morgan, put people into society-wide kinship classes on the basis of abstract relationship rules. These may have to do with genealogical relations locally (e.g., son to father, daughter to mother, daughter to father) but the classes bear no overall relation to genetic closeness. If a total stranger marries into the society, for example, they may simply be placed in the appropriate class opposite to their spouse. It uses kinship terms that merge or equate relatives who are genealogically distinct from one another. Here, the same term is used for different kin. The Dravidian kinship-term system, discovered in 1964, is an example of a classificatory kin-term logic.This article relating to anthropology is a stub
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Clan
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship[1] and descent. Even if lineage details are unknown, clan members may be organized around a founding member or apical ancestor. Clans in indigenous societies tend to be exogamous, meaning that their members cannot marry one another. Clans preceded more centralized forms of community organization and government and are in every country. Members may identify with a coat of arms or other symbol to show they are an independent clan. The kinship-based bonds may be symbolic, whereby the clan shares a "stipulated" common ancestor that is a symbol of the clan's unity. When this "ancestor" is non-human, it is referred to as a totem, which is frequently an animal. The word clan is derived from the Gaelic clann[1] meaning "children" or "progeny"; it is not from the word for "family" in either Irish[2][3] or Scottish Gaelic
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Cognatic Kinship
Cognatic kinship is a mode of descent calculated from an ancestor or ancestress counted through any combination of male and female links, or a system of bilateral kinship where relations are traced through both a father and mother.[1] Such relatives may be known as cognates. Notes[edit]^ Wolters, O. W. (1999). History, Culture, and Region in Southeast Asian Perspectives. SEAP Publications. p. 17. ISBN 0-87727-725-7. This article relating to anthropology is a stub
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Matrilateral
The term matrilateral describes kin (relatives) "on the mother's side". Social anthropologists have underlined that even where a social group demonstrates a strong emphasis on one or other line of inheritance (matrilineal or patrilineal), relatives who fall outside this unilineal grouping will not simply be ignored. So, a strongly patrilineal orientation will be complemented by matrilateral ties with the mother's kin. Likewise within a strongly matrilineal organisation, patrilateral ties will enter the reckoning of relationships as an important balancing factor. This complementarity often has a moral or emotional tone to it: Malinowski's classic studies of the matrilineal Trobriand islanders showed that matrilineal ties were associated with discipline and authority, while patrilateral ties were characterised by nurturance and kindness (at least in principle)
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Endogamy
Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships. Endogamy is common in many cultures and ethnic groups
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Moiety (kinship)
In the anthropological study of kinship, a moiety (/ˈmɔɪəti/) is a descent group that coexists with only one other descent group within a society. In such cases the community usually has unilineal descent, either patri- or matrilineal so that any individual belongs to one of the two moiety groups by birth, and all marriages take place between members of different moieties. In the case of a patrilineal descent system this can be interpreted as a system in which women are exchanged between the two moieties. Moiety societies are found particularly among the indigenous cultures of North America and Australia.[1][2][3] References[edit]^ Tooker, E. (1971). Clans and moieties in North America. Current Anthropology, 357-376. ^ Parsons, E. C. (1924). Tewa kin, clan, and moiety. American Anthropologist, 26(3), 333-339. ^ White, I. (1981)
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Joking Relationship
In anthropology, a joking relationship is a relationship between two people that involves a ritualised banter of teasing or mocking.Contents1 Structure 2 Extent 3 Antithesis 4 Sources 5 Further reading 6 External linksStructure[edit] Analysed by British social anthropologist Alfred Radcliffe-Brown
Alfred Radcliffe-Brown
in 1940,[1] it describes a kind of ritualised banter that takes place, for example between a man and his maternal mother-in-law in some South African tribal societies
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Exogamy
Exogamy is a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside a social group. The social groups define the scope and extent of exogamy, and the rules and enforcement mechanisms that ensure its continuity. In social studies, exogamy is viewed as a combination of two related aspects: biological and cultural
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Parallel And Cross Cousins
In discussing consanguineal kinship in anthropology, a parallel cousin or ortho-cousin is a cousin from a parent's same-sex sibling, while a cross cousin is from a parent's opposite-sex sibling. So a parallel cousin is the child of the father's brother (paternal uncle's child) or of the mother's sister (maternal aunt's child), while a cross cousin is the child of the mother's brother (maternal uncle's child) or of the father's sister (paternal aunt's child). Where there are unilineal descent groups in a society (i.e
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