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False Vacuum
In quantum field theory, a false vacuum is a hypothetical vacuum that exists at only a local minimum of energy and is therefore not stable, in contrast to a true vacuum, which exists at a global minimum and is stable. A false vacuum may be very long-lived, or metastable.Contents1 True vs false vacuum 2 Standard Model
Standard Model
vacuum 3 Stability and instability of the vacuum3.1 Implications3.1.1 Existential threat 3.1.2 Inflation4 Vacuum
Vacuum
decay 5 Bubble nucleation5.1 Expansion of bubble6 Gravitational effects6.1 Development of theories7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksTrue vs false vacuum[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Scalar Field
In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space. The scalar may either be a (dimensionless) mathematical number or a physical quantity. In a physical context, scalar fields are required to be independent of the choice of reference frame, meaning that any two observers using the same units will agree on the value of the scalar field at the same absolute point in space (or spacetime) regardless of their respective points of origin. Examples used in physics include the temperature distribution throughout space, the pressure distribution in a fluid, and spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field
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De Sitter Space
In mathematics and physics, a de Sitter space is the analog in Minkowski space, or spacetime, of a sphere in ordinary Euclidean space. The n-dimensional de Sitter space, denoted dSn, is the Lorentzian manifold analog of an n-sphere (with its canonical Riemannian metric); it is maximally symmetric, has constant positive curvature, and is simply connected for n at least 3. De Sitter space and anti-de Sitter space are named after Willem de Sitter (1872–1934), professor of astronomy at Leiden University
Leiden University
and director of the Leiden
Leiden
Observatory
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Supernova
A supernova (/ˌsuːpərnoʊvə/ plural: supernovae /ˌsuːpərnoʊviː/ or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a massive star's life, whose destruction is marked by one final titanic explosion. This causes the sudden appearance of a "new" bright star, before slowly fading from sight over several weeks or months. SN 1994D
SN 1994D
(bright spot on the lower left), a Type Ia supernova outshining its home galaxy, NGC 4526Supernovae are more energetic than novae. In Latin, nova means "new", referring astronomically to what appears to be a temporary new bright star. Adding the prefix "super-" distinguishes supernovae from ordinary novae, which are far less luminous
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Nucleation
Nucleation
Nucleation
is the first step in the formation of either a new thermodynamic phase or a new structure via self-assembly or self-organization. Nucleation
Nucleation
is typically defined to be the process that determines how long an observer has to wait before the new phase or self-organized structure appears. For example, if a volume of water is cooled (at atmospheric pressure) below 0° C, it will tend to freeze into ice. Volumes of water cooled only a few degrees below 0° C often stay completely ice free for long periods of time. At these conditions, nucleation of ice is either slow or does not occur at all. However, at lower temperatures ice crystals appear after little or no delay. At these conditions ice nucleation is fast.[1][2] Nucleation
Nucleation
is commonly how first-order phase transitions start, and then it is the start of the process of forming a new thermodynamic phase
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ArXiv
arXiv (pronounced "archive")[2] is a repository of electronic preprints (known as e-prints) approved for publication after moderation, that consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million article milestone on October 3, 2008,[3][4] and hit a million by the end of 2014.[5][6] By October 2016 the submission rate had grown to more than 10,000 per month.[6][7]Contents1 History 2 Peer review 3 Submission formats 4 Access 5 Copyright status of files 6 Controversy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit]A screenshot of the arXiv taken in 1994,[8] using the browser NCSA Mosaic
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Primordial Black Hole
Primordial black holes are a hypothetical type of black hole that formed soon after the Big Bang. In the early universe, high densities and inhomogeneous conditions could lead sufficiently dense regions to undergo gravitational collapse, forming black holes. Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich
Zel'dovich
and Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov in 1966[1] first proposed the existence of such black holes, but the theory behind their origins was first studied in depth by Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
in 1971.[2] Since primordial black holes didn't form from stellar gravitational collapse, their masses can be far below stellar mass (~2×1033 g)
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Large Hadron Collider
The Large Hadron
Hadron
Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built, and the largest single machine in the world.[1] It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries, as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories.[2] It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference, as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France–Switzerland border
France–Switzerland border
near Geneva. Its first research run took place from March 2010 to early 2013 at an energy of 3.5 to 4 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam (7 to 8 TeV total), about 4 times the previous world record for a collider.[3][4] Afterwards, the accelerator was upgraded for two years
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Coupling (physics)
In physics, two objects are said to be coupled when they are interacting with each other. In classical mechanics, coupling is a connection between two oscillating systems, such as pendulums connected by a string. The connection affects the oscillatory pattern of both objects. In particle physics, two particles are coupled if they are connected by one of the four fundamental forces.Contents1 Wave mechanics1.1 Coupled harmonic oscillator 1.2 Coupled LC circuits2 Chemistry2.1 Spin-spin coupling3 Astrophysics 4 Plasma 5 Quantum mechanics5.1 Angular momentum coupling6 Particle physics
Particle physics
and quantum field theory 7 ReferencesWave mechanics[edit] Coupled harmonic oscillator[edit]Coupled pendulums connected by a springIf two waves are able to transmit energy to each other, then these waves are said to be "coupled." This normally occurs when the waves share a common component. An example of this is two pendulums connected by a spring
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Catalysis
Catalysis
Catalysis
(/kəˈtælɪsɪs/) is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst[1] (/ˈkætəlɪst/), which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required in principle.[2] In general, the reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy. In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst
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Observable Universe
The observable universe is a spherical region of the Universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth
Earth
at the present time, because electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach Earth
Earth
since the beginning of the cosmological expansion. There are at least 2 trillion galaxies in the observable universe,[7][8] containing more stars than all the grains of sand on planet Earth.[9][10][11] Assuming the Universe
Universe
is isotropic, the distance to the edge of the observable universe is roughly the same in every direction. That is, the observable universe is a spherical volume (a ball) centered on the observer
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Eternal Inflation
Eternal inflation is a hypothetical inflationary universe model, which is itself an outgrowth or extension of the Big Bang
Big Bang
theory. According to eternal inflation, the inflationary phase of the universe's expansion lasts forever throughout most of the universe. Because the regions expand exponentially rapidly, most of the volume of the universe at any given time is inflating
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Friedmann Universe
The Friedmann equations
Friedmann equations
are a set of equations in physical cosmology that govern the expansion of space in homogeneous and isotropic models of the universe within the context of general relativity. They were first derived by Alexander Friedmann
Alexander Friedmann
in 1922[1] from Einstein's field equations of gravitation for the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric
Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric
and a perfect fluid with a given mass density ρ displaystyle rho and pressure p displaystyle p
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Gigayear
A billion years (109 years) is a unit of time on the petasecond scale, more precisely equal to 7016316000000000000♠3.16×1016 seconds. It is sometimes abbreviated Gy, Ga ("giga-annum"), Byr and variants. The abbreviations Gya or bya are for "billion years ago", i.e. billion years before present.[1] The terms are used in geology, paleontology, geophysics, astronomy and physical cosmology. The prefix giga- is preferred over billion- to avoid confusion in the long and short scales over the meaning of billion; the postfix annum may be further qualified for precision as a sidereal year or Julian year:1 Gaj=7016315576000000000♠3.15576×1016 s, 1 Gas=7016315580999999999♠3.15581×1016 s (epoch J2000.0).Byr was formerly used in English-language
English-language
geology and astronomy as a unit of one billion years
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Stoicism
Stoicism
Stoicism
is a school of Hellenistic philosophy
Hellenistic philosophy
that flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD. Zeno of Citium founded stoicism in Athens
Athens
in the early 3rd century BC. It was heavily influenced by certain teachings of Socrates, while stoic physics are largely drawn from the teachings of the philosopher Heraclitus
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Minkowski Space
In mathematical physics, Minkowski space
Minkowski space
(or Minkowski spacetime) is a combining of three-dimensional Euclidean space
Euclidean space
and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded. Although initially developed by mathematician Hermann Minkowski for Maxwell's equations
Maxwell's equations
of electromagnetism, the mathematical structure of Minkowski spacetime was shown to be an immediate consequence of the postulates of special relativity.[1] Minkowski space
Minkowski space
is closely associated with Einstein's theory of special relativity, and is the most common mathematical structure on which special relativity is formulated
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