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Fact Checking
FACT CHECKING is the act of checking factual assertions in non-fictional text in order to determine the veracity and correctness of the factual statements in the text. This may be done either before (ante hoc) or after (post hoc) the text has been published or otherwise disseminated. ANTE HOC FACT-CHECKING (fact checking before dissemination) aims to remove errors and allow text to proceed to dissemination (or to rejection if it fails confirmations or other criteria). POST HOC FACT-CHECKING is most often followed by a written report of inaccuracies, sometimes with a visual metric from the checking organization (e.g., Pinocchios from The Washington Post
The Washington Post
Fact Checker, or TRUTH-O-METER ratings from PolitiFact
PolitiFact
). Several organizations are devoted to post hoc fact-checking, such as FactCheck.org and PolitiFact
PolitiFact

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Community Journalism
COMMUNITY JOURNALISM is locally-oriented, professional news coverage that typically focuses on city neighborhoods, individual suburbs or small towns, rather than metropolitan, state, national or world news. If it covers wider topics, community journalism concentrates on the effect they have on local readers. Community
Community
newspapers , often but not always publish weekly , and also tend to cover subjects larger news media do not. Some examples of topics are students on the honor roll at the local high school, school sports, crimes such as vandalism, zoning issues and other details of community life. However, such "hyperlocal " articles are sometimes dismissed as "chicken dinner" stories
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Comics Journalism
COMICS JOURNALISM, or GRAPHIC JOURNALISM, is a form of journalism that covers news or non-fiction events using the framework of comics – a combination of words and drawn images. Although visual narrative storytelling has existed for thousands of years, the use of the comics medium to cover real-life events for news organizations, publications or publishers (in graphic novel format) is currently at an all-time peak. Historically, pictorial representation (typically engravings) of news events were commonly used before the proliferation of photography in publications such as The Illustrated London News
News
and Harper\'s Magazine
Magazine
. More recent writers/journalists and illustrators have attempted to increase validity of the genre by bringing journalism to the field in more direct ways. This includes coverage of foreign and local affairs where word balloons are actual quotes and sources are actual people featured in each story
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Data Journalism
DATA JOURNALISM is a journalism specialty reflecting the increased role that numerical data is used in the production and distribution of information in the digital era . It reflects the increased interaction between content producers (journalist ) and several other fields such as design , computer science and statistics . From the point of view of journalists, it represents "an overlapping set of competencies drawn from disparate fields". Data journalism
Data journalism
has been widely used to unite several concepts and link them to journalism. Some see these as levels or stages leading from the simpler to the more complex uses of new technologies in the journalistic process. Designers are not always part of the process. According to author and data journalism trainer Henk van Ess, "Datajournalism can be based on any data that has to be processed first with tools before a relevant story is possible. It doesn't include visualisation per se"
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Database Journalism
DATABASE JOURNALISM or STRUCTURED JOURNALISM is a principle in information management whereby news content is organized around structured pieces of data , as opposed to news stories. See also Datajournalism Communication scholar Wiebke Loosen defines database journalism as "supplying databases with raw material - articles, photos and other content - by using medium-agnostic publishing systems and then making it available for different devices ." CONTENTS * 1 History and development of database journalism * 2 Difference with data-driven journalism * 3 Examples of database journalism * 4 References * 5 See also HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF DATABASE JOURNALISMComputer programmer Adrian Holovaty wrote what is now considered the manifesto of database journalism in September 2006
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Gonzo Journalism
GONZO JOURNALISM is a style of journalism that is written without claims of objectivity, often including the reporter as part of the story via a first-person narrative . The word "gonzo" is believed to have been first used in 1970 to describe an article by Hunter S. Thompson , who later popularized the style. It is an energetic first-person participatory writing style in which the author is a protagonist, and it draws its power from a combination of social critique and self-satire. It has since been applied to other subjective artistic endeavors. Gonzo
Gonzo
journalism involves an approach to accuracy that concerns the reporting of personal experiences and emotions, in contrast to traditional journalism, which favors a detached style and relies on facts or quotations that can be verified by third parties
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Civic Journalism
CIVIC JOURNALISM (also known as PUBLIC JOURNALISM) is the idea of integrating journalism into the democratic process. The media not only informs the public, but it also works towards engaging citizens and creating public debate. The civic journalism movement is an attempt to abandon the notion that journalists and their audiences are spectators in political and social processes. In its place, the civic journalism movement seeks to treat readers and community members as participants. With a small but committed following, civic journalism has become as much of a philosophy as it is a practice. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Definition * 3 Main tenets * 4 Structure * 5 Key proponents * 6 Case studies * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORYIn the 1920s, before the notion of public journalism was developed, there was the famous debate between Walter Lippmann and John Dewey over the role of journalism in a democracy
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Citizen Journalism
The concept of CITIZEN JOURNALISM (also known as "PUBLIC", "PARTICIPATORY", "DEMOCRATIC", "GUERRILLA" or "STREET" JOURNALISM ) is based upon public citizens "playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing, and disseminating news and information." Similarly, Courtney C. Radsch defines citizen journalism "as an alternative and activist form of newsgathering and reporting that functions outside mainstream media institutions, often as a response to shortcomings in the professional journalistic field, that uses similar journalistic practices but is driven by different objectives and ideals and relies on alternative sources of legitimacy than traditional or mainstream journalism"
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Advocacy Journalism
ADVOCACY JOURNALISM is a genre of journalism that intentionally and transparently adopts a non-objective viewpoint, usually for some social or political purpose. Because it is intended to be factual, it is distinguished from propaganda . It is also distinct from instances of media bias and failures of objectivity in media outlets, since the bias is intended. Some advocacy journalists reject that the traditional ideal of objectivity is possible in practice, either generally, or due to the presence of corporate sponsors in advertising . Some feel that the public interest is better served by a diversity of media outlets with a variety of transparent points of view, or that advocacy journalism serves a similar role to muckrakers or whistleblowers
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Analytic Journalism
ANALYTIC JOURNALISM is a field of journalism that seeks to make sense of complex reality in order to create public understanding. It combines aspects of investigative journalism and explanatory reporting . Analytic journalism
Analytic journalism
can be seen as a response to professionalized communication from powerful agents, information overload, and growing complexity in a globalised world. It aims to create evidence-based interpretations of reality, often confronting dominant ways of understanding a specific phenomenon. It is distinctive in terms of research practices and journalistic product. At times, it uses methods from social science research. The journalist gains expertise on a particular topic, to identify a phenomenon that is not readily obvious. At its best, investigative journalism is deeply analytic, but its intent is primarily to expose. Analytic journalism's primary aim is to explain
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Blog
A BLOG (a truncation of the expression "WEBLOG") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
consisting of discrete, often informal diary -style text entries ("posts"). Posts are typically displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page. Until 2009, blogs were usually the work of a single individual, occasionally of a small group, and often covered a single subject or topic. In the 2010s, "multi-author blogs" (MABs) have developed, with posts written by large numbers of authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers , other media outlets, universities , think tanks , advocacy groups , and similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic. The rise of Twitter
Twitter
and other "microblogging " systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media
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Broadcast Journalism
BROADCAST JOURNALISM is the field of news and journals which are "broadcast", that is, published by electrical methods instead of the older methods, such as printed newspapers and posters. Broadcast methods include radio (via air, cable, and Internet), television (via air, cable, and Internet) and the World Wide Web. Such media disperse pictures (static and moving), visual text and sounds. Scripts for broadcast tend to be written differently from text to be read by the public. For instance, the former is generally less complex and more conversational. Radio and television are designed to be seen and heard sooner and more often than a daily or weekly newspaper
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Immersion Journalism
IMMERSION JOURNALISM or IMMERSIONISM is a style of journalism similar to gonzo journalism . In the style, journalists immerse themselves in a situation and with the people involved. The final product tends to focus on the experience, not the writer. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Examples * 2.1 Print * 2.2 Film * 2.3 Television and radio * 3 Notable figures * 3.1 Elizabeth Jane Cochrane * 3.2 Jon Franklin * 3.3 David S Pollack * 4 Criticism * 5 References OVERVIEWLike Gonzo, immersionism details an individual's experiences from a deeply personal perspective. An individual will choose a situation, and immerse themselves in the events and people involved. Unlike Gonzo, however, it is less focused on the writer's life, and more about the writer's specific experiences
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Investigative Journalism
INVESTIGATIVE JOURNALISM is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption , or corporate wrongdoing. An investigative journalist may spend months or years researching and preparing a report. Investigative journalism
Investigative journalism
is a primary source of information. Most investigative journalism is conducted by newspapers , wire services , and freelance journalists. Practitioners sometimes use the terms "watchdog reporting" or "accountability reporting"
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Peace Journalism
PEACE JOURNALISM has been developed from research that indicates that often news about conflict has a value bias toward violence. It uses Conflict analysis and transformation to update the concept of balance, fairness and accuracy in reporting. It also includes practical methods for correcting this bias by producing journalism in both the mainstream and alternative media, and working with journalists, media professionals, audiences, and organizations in conflict. This concept was proposed by Johan Galtung
Johan Galtung
. Other terms for this broad definition of peace journalism include conflict solution journalism, conflict sensitive journalism, constructive conflict coverage, and reporting the world. WAR JOURNALISM is journalism about conflict that has a value bias towards violence and violent groups. This usually leads audiences to overvalue violent responses to conflict and ignore non-violent alternatives
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Opinion Journalism
OPINION JOURNALISM is journalism that makes no claim of objectivity . Although distinguished from advocacy journalism in several ways, both forms feature a subjective viewpoint, usually with some social or political purpose. Common examples include newspaper columns , editorials , op-eds , editorial cartoons , and punditry . Unlike advocacy journalism, opinion journalism has a reduced focus on facts or research and its perspective is often of a more personalized variety. Its product may be only one component of a generally objective news outlet, rather than the dominant feature of an entire publication or broadcast network
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