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FLOPS
In computing , FLOATING POINT OPERATIONS PER SECOND (FLOPS) is a measure of computer performance , useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations. For such cases it is a more accurate measure than measuring instructions per second . The similar term FLOP is often used for floating-point operation, for example as a unit of counting floating-point operations carried out by an algorithm or computer hardware
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IBM
IBM
IBM
(INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York , United States
United States
, with operations in over 170 countries. The company originated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
(CTR) and was renamed "International Business
Business
Machines" in 1924. IBM
IBM
manufactures and markets computer hardware , middleware and software , and offers hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology . IBM
IBM
is also a major research organization, holding the record for most patents generated by a business (as of 2017) for 24 consecutive years
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Cray XT4
The CRAY XT4 (codenamed Hood during development) is an updated version of the Cray
Cray
XT3 supercomputer . It was released on November 18, 2006. It includes an updated version of the SeaStar interconnect router called SeaStar2 , processor sockets for Socket AM2 Opteron processors, and 240-pin unbuffered DDR2 memory. The XT4 also includes support for FPGA coprocessors that plug into riser cards in the Service and IO blades. The interconnect, cabinet, system software and programming environment remain unchanged from the Cray
Cray
XT3
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National Science Foundation
The NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering . Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
. With an annual budget of about US$
US$
7.0 billion (fiscal year 2012), the NSF funds approximately 24% of all federally supported basic research conducted by the United States\' colleges and universities . In some fields, such as mathematics , computer science , economics , and the social sciences , the NSF is the major source of federal backing
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Teraflops Research Chip
The TERAFLOPS RESEARCH CHIP (also called POLARIS) is a research manycore processor , containing 80 cores developed by Intel Corporation's Tera-Scale Computing Research Program. The processor was officially announced February 11, 2007 and shown working at the 2007 International Solid-State Circuits Conference. Features of the processor include dual floating point engines, sleeping-core technology, self-correction, fixed-function cores, and three-dimensional memory stacking. The purpose of the chip is to explore the possibilities of Tera-Scale architecture (the process of creating processors with more than four cores) and to experiment with various forms of networking and communication within the next generation of processors
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Pipeline (computing)
In computing , a PIPELINE is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one. The elements of a pipeline are often executed in parallel or in time-sliced fashion; in that case, some amount of buffer storage is often inserted between elements. Computer-related pipelines include: * Instruction pipelines , such as the classic RISC pipeline , which are used in central processing units (CPUs) to allow overlapping execution of multiple instructions with the same circuitry . The circuitry is usually divided up into stages and each stage processes one instruction at a time
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IEEE 754-1985
IEEE 754-1985 was an industry standard for representing floating-point numbers in computers , officially adopted in 1985 and superseded in 2008 by IEEE 754-2008 . During its 23 years, it was the most widely used format for floating-point computation. It was implemented in software, in the form of floating-point libraries , and in hardware, in the instructions of many CPUs and FPUs . The first integrated circuit to implement the draft of what was to become IEEE 754-1985 was the Intel 8087
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Intel
Coordinates : 37°23′16.54″N 121°57′48.74″W / 37.3879278°N 121.9635389°W / 37.3879278; -121.9635389 Intel
Intel
Corporation Intel
Intel
Corporation's current logo, used since 2006 Intel's headquarters in Santa Clara , California
California
FORMERLY CALLED N M Electronics
Electronics
(1968) TYPE Public TRADED AS * NASDAQ
NASDAQ
: INTC * NASDAQ-100 Component * DJIA Component * S&P 100 Component * S 49 years ago (1968-07-18) FOUNDERS Gordon Moore
Gordon Moore
Robert Noyce HEADQUARTERS Santa Clara , California
California
, U.S
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University Of Texas At Austin
THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN (UT AUSTIN, UT, or TEXAS ) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System . Founded in 1881 as "THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS," its campus is in Austin, Texas
Austin, Texas
—approximately 1 mile (1,600 m) from the Texas
Texas
State Capitol . UT Austin was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. It is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $550 million for the 2014–2015 school year
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AMD
ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES, INC. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale , California
California
, United States, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets . While initially it manufactured its own processors, the company later outsourced its manufacturing, a practice known as fabless , after GlobalFoundries was spun off in 2009. AMD's main products include microprocessors , motherboard chipsets , embedded processors and graphics processors for servers , workstations and personal computers, and embedded systems applications. AMD
AMD
is the second-largest supplier and only significant rival to Intel
Intel
in the market for x86 -based microprocessors
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Cray
CRAY INC. is an American supercomputer manufacturer headquartered in Seattle
Seattle
, Washington . It also manufactures systems for data storage and analytics. Several Cray
Cray
supercomputer systems are listed in the TOP500 , which ranks the most powerful supercomputers in the world. The number of Cray
Cray
systems on the list varies from year to year. Cray
Cray
manufactures its products in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin
Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin
, where its founder, Seymour Cray , was born and raised. The company also has offices in St
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Gulftown (microprocessor)
GULFTOWN or WESTMERE-EP is the codename of an up to six-core hyperthreaded Intel processor able to run up to 12 threads in parallel. It is based on Westmere microarchitecture , the 32 nm shrink of Nehalem . Originally rumored to be called the Intel Core i9, it is sold as an Intel Core i7 . The first release was the Core i7 980X in the first quarter of 2010, along with its server counterpart, the Xeon 3600 and the dual-socket Xeon 5600 (Westmere-EP) series using identical chips. First figures indicate that at equivalent clock rates, depending on the software, it has up to 50% higher performance than the identically clocked quad-core Bloomfield Core i7-975. However, consumer software that utilizes six real cores is still quite rare as of 2011, and not every multithreaded program is able to take advantage of this many cores
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Graphics Processing Unit
A GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device . GPUs are used in embedded systems , mobile phones , personal computers , workstations , and game consoles . Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics and image processing , and their highly parallel structure makes them more efficient than general-purpose CPUs for algorithms where the processing of large blocks of data is done in parallel. In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on a video card , or it can be embedded on the motherboard or—in certain CPUs—on the CPU die . The term GPU was popularized by Nvidia
Nvidia
in 1999, who marketed the GeForce 256 as "the world's first GPU", or Graphics Processing Unit
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Kraken
The KRAKEN (/ˈkrɑːkən/ ) is a legendary sea monster of giant size that is said to dwell off the coasts of Norway
Norway
and Greenland
Greenland
. Authors over the years have postulated that the legend originated from sightings of giant squids that may grow to 12–15 meters (40–50 feet) in length. The sheer size and fearsome appearance attributed to the kraken have made it a common ocean-dwelling monster in various fictional works . It was first described by the Dane Erik Pontoppidan in 1752–3. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Appearance and origins * 4 In popular culture * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe English word kraken is taken from Norwegian . In Norwegian Kraken
Kraken
is the definite form of krake, a word designating an unhealthy animal or something twisted (cognate with the English crook and crank)
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Radeon HD 4000 Series
The RADEON R700 is the engineering codename for a graphics processing unit series developed by Advanced Micro Devices
Advanced Micro Devices
under the ATI brand name. The foundation chip, codenamed RV770, was announced and demonstrated on June 16, 2008 as part of the FireStream 9250 and Cinema 2.0 initiative launch media event, with official release of the Radeon
Radeon
HD 4800 series on June 25, 2008. Other variants include enthusiast-oriented RV790, mainstream product RV730, RV740 and entry-level RV710. Its direct competition was nVidia's GeForce 200 series , which launched in the same month
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List Of U.S. State Birds
This is a LIST OF U.S. STATE BIRDS as designated by each state's legislature. The selection of state birds began in 1927, when the legislatures for Alabama
Alabama
, Florida
Florida
, Maine
Maine
, Missouri
Missouri
, Oregon
Oregon
, Texas and Wyoming
Wyoming
selected their state birds. The last state to choose its bird was Arizona
Arizona
in 1973. Alaska
Alaska
, California
California
, and South Dakota permit hunting of their state birds
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