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External Beam Radiotherapy
External beam radiotherapy
External beam radiotherapy
(EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy). The patient sits or lies on a couch and an external source of ionizing radiation is pointed at a particular part of the body. In contrast to brachytherapy (sealed source radiotherapy) and unsealed source radiotherapy, in which the radiation source is inside the body, external beam radiotherapy directs the radiation at the tumour from outside the body. Orthovoltage
Orthovoltage
("superficial") X-rays
X-rays
are used for treating skin cancer and superficial structures. Megavoltage
Megavoltage
("deep") X-rays
X-rays
are used to treat deep-seated tumours (e.g. bladder, bowel, prostate, lung, or brain). X-rays
X-rays
and electron beams are by far the most widely used sources for external beam radiotherapy
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Tomotherapy
Tomotherapy or helical tomotherapy (HT) is a type of radiation therapy in which the radiation is delivered slice-by-slice (hence the use of the Greek prefix tomo-, which means "slice"). HT is a form of computed tomography (CT) guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). HT machines are purpose built for IMRT and differ from IMRT delivered by conventional medical linear accelerators (LINACs) in a number of ways
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Bremsstrahlung
Bremsstrahlung
Bremsstrahlung
(German pronunciation: [ˈbʁɛmsˌʃtʁaːlʊŋ] ( listen), from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus. The moving particle loses kinetic energy, which is converted into radiation, i.e. a photon, thus satisfying the law of conservation of energy
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Iridium-192
There are two natural isotopes of iridium (77Ir), and 34 radioisotopes, the most stable radioisotope being 192Ir with a half-life of 73.83 days, and many nuclear isomers, the most stable of which is 192m2Ir with a half-life of 241 years. All other isomers have half-lives under a year, most under a day.Contents1 Iridium-192 2 List of isotopes2.1 Notes3 References 4 External linksIridium-192[edit] Iridium-192 (symbol 192Ir) is a radioactive isotope of iridium, with a half-life of 73.83 days.[2] It decays by emitting beta (β) particles and gamma (γ) radiation. About 96% of 192Ir decays occur via emission of β and γ radiation, leading to 192Pt
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Caesium-137
Caesium-137
Caesium-137
(137 55Cs, Cs-137), cesium-137, or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons
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Radium
Radium
Radium
is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88. It is the sixth element in group 2 of the periodic table, also known as the alkaline earth metals. Pure radium is silvery-white, but it readily reacts with nitrogen (rather than oxygen) on exposure to air, forming a black surface layer of radium nitride (Ra3N2). All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226, which has a half-life of 1600 years and decays into radon gas (specifically the isotope radon-222). When radium decays, ionizing radiation is a product, which can excite fluorescent chemicals and cause radioluminescence. Radium, in the form of radium chloride, was discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie
Pierre Curie
in 1898. They extracted the radium compound from uraninite and published the discovery at the French Academy of Sciences five days later
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Monochromatic
Monochrome[1] describes paintings, drawings, design, or photographs in one color or values of one color.[2] A monochromatic object or image reflects colors in shades of limited colors or hues. Images using only shades of grey (with or without black or white) are called grayscale or black-and-white. However, scientifically speaking, monochromatic light refers to visible light of a narrow band of wavelengths (see spectral color).Contents1 Application 2 In physics 3 See also 4 ReferencesApplication[edit]A photograph of a parrot rendered with a monochrome palette of a limited number of shadesFor an image, the term monochrome is usually taken to mean the same as black and white or, more likely, grayscale, but may also be used to refer to other combinations containing only tones of a single color, such as green-and-white or green-and-black
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Gamma Ray
Gamma
Gamma
rays (also called gamma radiation), denoted by the lower-case Greek letter gamma (γ or γ displaystyle gamma ), are penetrating electromagnetic radiation of a kind arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei. It consists of photons in the highest observed range of photon energy. Paul Villard, a French chemist and physicist, discovered gamma radiation in 1900 while studying radiation emitted by radium. In 1903, Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
named this radiation gamma rays
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Tungsten
Tungsten, or wolfram,[7][8] is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74. The name tungsten comes from the former Swedish name for the tungstate mineral scheelite, from tung sten "heavy stone".[9] Tungsten
Tungsten
is a rare metal found naturally on Earth almost exclusively in chemical compounds. It was identified as a new element in 1781 and first isolated as a metal in 1783. Its important ores include wolframite and scheelite. The free element is remarkable for its robustness, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the elements discovered, melting at 3422 °C (6192 °F, 3695 K)
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Radioisotope
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable. This excess energy can be used in one of three ways: emitted from the nucleus as gamma radiation; transferred to one of its electrons to release it as a conversion electron; or used to create and emit a new particle (alpha particle or beta particle) from the nucleus. During those processes, the radionuclide is said to undergo radioactive decay.[1] These emissions are considered ionizing radiation because they are powerful enough to liberate an electron from another atom. The radioactive decay can produce a stable nuclide or will sometimes produce a new unstable radionuclide which may undergo further decay
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Photon
A photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles). The photon has zero rest mass and always moves at the speed of light within a vacuum. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens and exhibit wave interference with itself, and it can behave as a particle with definite and finite measurable position or momentum, though not both at the same time
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Hadron
In particle physics, a hadron /ˈhædrɒn/ ( listen) (Greek: ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force. Hadrons are categorized into two families: baryons, made of three quarks, and mesons, made of one quark and one antiquark. Protons and neutrons are examples of baryons; pions are an example of a meson. Hadrons containing more than three valence quarks (exotic hadrons) have been discovered in recent years
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Proton
6973167262189800000♠1.672621898(21)×10−27 kg[1] 7002938272081300000♠938.2720813(58) MeV/c2[2] 7000100727646687900♠1.007276466879(91) u[2]Mean lifetime > 7036662709600000000♠2.1×1029 years (stable)Electric charge 6981160217648700000♠+1 e 6981160217662079999♠1.6021766208(98)×10−19 C[2]Charge radius 6999875100000000000♠0.8751(61) fm[2]Electric dipole moment < 6976540000000000000♠5.4×10−24 e⋅cmElectric polarizability 6997119999999999999♠1.20(6)×10−3 fm3Magnetic moment6974141060678730000♠1.4106067873(97)×10−26 J⋅T−1[2] 6997152103220530000♠1.5210322053(46)×10−3 μB[2] 7000279284735079999♠2.7928473508(85) μN[2]Magnetic polarizability 6996190000000000000♠1.9(5)×10−4 fm3Spin 1/2Isospin 1/2Parity +1Condensed I(JP) = 1/2(1/2+)A proton is a subatomic
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Neutron
5000000000000000000♠0 e 3021799999999999999♠(−2±8)×10−22 e (experimental limits)[4]Electric dipole moment < 6974290000000000000♠2.9×10−26 e⋅cm (experimental upper limit)Electric polarizability 6997116000000000000♠1.16(15)×10−3 fm3Magnetic moment 3026033763500000000♠−0.96623650(23)×10−26 J·T−1[3] 3002895812437000000♠−1.04187563(25)×10−3 μB[3] 2999808695726999999♠−1.91304273(45) μN[3]Magnetic polarizability 6996370000000000000♠3.7(20)×10−4 fm3Spin 1/2Isospin −1/2Parity +1Condensed I(JP) = 1/2(1/2+)The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol n or n0, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms
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Ion
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Radiation Oncologists
A radiation oncologist is a specialist physician who uses ionizing radiation (such as megavoltage X-rays or radionuclides) in the treatment of cancer. Radiation oncology is one of the three primary specialties, the other two being surgical and medical oncology, involved in the treatment of cancer. Radiation can be given as a curative modality, either alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. It may also be used palliatively, to relieve symptoms in patients with incurable cancers. A radiation oncologist may also use radiation to treat some benign diseases, including benign tumors
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