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Expulsion Of Cham Albanians
The expulsion of Cham Albanians
Cham Albanians
from Greece
Greece
was the forced migration of thousands of Cham Albanians
Cham Albanians
from parts of the Greek region of western Epirus
Epirus
after the Second World War
Second World War
to Albania, at the hands of elements of the Greek Resistance; the National Republican Greek League (EDES) (1944) and EDES veteran resistance fighters (1945).[1][2] In the late Ottoman period, tensions between the Muslim Chams and the local Greek Orthodox Christian population emerged through communal conflicts that continued during the Balkan Wars, when part of the historic region of Epirus, then under Ottoman rule, became part of Greece
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Forced Migration
Forced displacement
Forced displacement
or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion. Someone who has experienced forced displacement is a "forced immigrant", a "displaced person" (DP), rarely also a "displacee", or if it is within the same country, an internally displaced person (IDP). In some cases the forced immigrant can also become a refugee, as that term has a specific legal definition. A specific form of forced displacement is population transfer, which is a coherent policy to move unwanted persons, for example, as an attempt at ethnic cleansing. Another form is deportation. Forced displacement
Forced displacement
has accompanied persecution, as well as war, throughout human history but has only become a topic of serious study and discussion relatively recently
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Exiles
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return. It can be a form of punishment and solitude.[1] It is common to distinguish between "internal exile", i.e., forced resettlement within the country of residence, and "external exile", which is deportation outside the country of residence.[2] Although most commonly used to describe an individual situation, the term is also used for groups (especially ethnic or national groups), or for an entire government. Terms such as "diaspora" and "refugee" describe group exile, both voluntary and forced, and "government in exile" describes a government of a country that has been forced to relocate and argue its legitimacy from outside that country. Exile
Exile
can also be a self-imposed departure from one's homeland
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Resistance During World War II
Resistance movements during World War II
World War II
occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda, to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns
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Collaboration With The Axis Powers During World War II
Within nations occupied by the Axis Powers
Axis Powers
in World War
War
II, some citizens and organizations, prompted by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, antisemitism, or opportunism, knowingly collaborated with the Axis Powers
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Aftermath Of World War II
The aftermath of World War II
World War II
was the beginning of an era defined by the decline of all great powers except for the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States, and the simultaneous rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(USSR) and the United States
United States
of America (USA). Allies during World War II, the USA and the USSR became competitors on the world stage and engaged in the Cold War, so called because it never resulted in overt, declared hot war between the two powers but was instead characterized by espionage, political subversion and proxy wars. Western Europe
Western Europe
and Japan
Japan
were rebuilt through the American Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
whereas Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
fell under the Soviet sphere of influence and eventually an "Iron Curtain"
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Pursuit Of Nazi Collaborators
The pursuit of Nazi collaborators refers to the post-World War II pursuit and apprehension of individuals who were not citizens of the Third Reich
Third Reich
at the outbreak of World War II
World War II
and collaborated with the Nazi regime during the war. Hence, this article does not cover former members of the NSDAP and their fate after the war.Contents1 Background 2 Means of pursuit 3 Pursuit in specific countries3.1 Argentina 3.2 Australia 3.3 Belgium 3.4 Czechoslovakia 3.5 Estonia 3.6 France 3.7 Greece 3.8 Israel 3.9 Norway 3.10 Poland 3.11 Soviet Union 3.12 United Kingdom 3.13 Yugoslavia4 See also 5 References and notes 6 Bibliography 7 External linksBackground[edit] There were a number of motives for the apprehension of suspected collaborators
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Trial In Absentia
Trial in absentia
Trial in absentia
is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings. In absentia is Latin
Latin
for "in the absence". Its meaning varies by jurisdiction and legal system. In common law legal systems, the phrase is more than a spatial description
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War Crimes
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.[1] Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, torture, destroying civilian property, taking hostages, perfidy, rape, using child soldiers, pillaging, declaring that no quarter will be given, and serious violations of the principles of distinction and proportionality, such as strategic bombing of civilian populations.[2] The concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the Lieber Code in the United States, and at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Refugees
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition). Such a person may be called an asylum seeker until granted refugee status by the contracting state or the UNHCR[2] if they formally make a claim for asylum.[3] The lead international agency coordinating refugee protection is the United Nations
United Nations
Office of the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
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Arrests
An arrest is the act of depriving people of their liberty, usually because they have been suspected of committing or planning a crime. An arrest results in a person being taken into custody, usually at a police station, where they can be questioned further and/or charged. An arrest is an important procedure in a criminal justice system. Police
Police
and various other officers have powers of arrest. In some places, a citizen's arrest is permitted; for example in England and Wales, any person can arrest "anyone whom he has reasonable grounds for suspecting to be committing, have committed or be guilty of committing an indictable offence," although certain conditions must be met before taking such action.[1]
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Persecution
Persecution
Persecution
is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another individual or group. The most common forms are religious persecution, racism and political persecution, though there is naturally some overlap between these terms. The inflicting of suffering, harassment, imprisonment, internment, fear, or pain are all factors that may establish persecution, but not all suffering will necessarily establish persecution. The suffering experienced by the victim must be sufficiently severe
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Nazi
National Socialism
Socialism
(German: Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism
Nazism
(/ˈnɑːtsi.ɪzəm, ˈnæt-/),[1] is the ideology and practices associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in Nazi Germany and of other far-right groups with similar aims
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Anti-Communism
Anti-communism
Anti-communism
is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed after the 1917 October Revolution
Revolution
in Russia and it reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
engaged in an intense rivalry. Anti-communism
Anti-communism
has been an element of movements holding many different political positions, including nationalist, social democratic, liberal, conservative, fascist, capitalist, anarchist and even socialist viewpoints. The first organization specifically dedicated to opposing communism was the Russian White movement, which fought in the Russian Civil War starting in 1918 against the recently established Communist government
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Albanian National Awakening
The Albanian National Awakening
Albanian National Awakening
(Albanian: Rilindja Kombëtare) (also known as the National Renaissance or National Revival), refers to the period in the history of Albania
Albania
from 1870 until the declaration of independence in 1912
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