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Expedition 11
L-R: Sergei K. Krikalev
Sergei K. Krikalev
and John L. Phillips ISS expeditions← Expedition 10 Expedition 12 → Expedition 11
Expedition 11
(2005) was the 11th expedition to the International Space Station, using the Soyuz TMA-6, which stayed during the expedition for emergency evacuation. European Space Agency
European Space Agency
Italian Astronaut Roberto Vittori
Roberto Vittori
launched with Expedition 11
Expedition 11
on the Soyuz TMA-6
Soyuz TMA-6
spacecraft and returned 24 April 2005 with Expedition 10
Expedition 10
on Soyuz TMA-5.Contents1 Crew 2 Mission parameters 3 Mission objectives 4 Spacewalks 5 References 6 External linksCrew[edit]Position AstronautCommander Sergei K. Krikalev, RSA Sixth and last spaceflightFlight Engineer 1 John L
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Control Moment Gyroscope
A control moment gyroscope (CMG) is an attitude control device generally used in spacecraft attitude control systems. A CMG consists of a spinning rotor and one or more motorized gimbals that tilt the rotor’s angular momentum. As the rotor tilts, the changing angular momentum causes a gyroscopic torque that rotates the spacecraft.[1][2]Contents1 Mechanics 2 Design varieties2.1 Single-gimbal 2.2 Dual-gimbal 2.3 Variable-speed3 Potential problems3.1 Singularities 3.2 Saturation 3.3 Anti-parallel alignment 3.4 Hitting the gimbal stops4 Applications4.1 Skylab 4.2 Gyrodynes on Salyut and Mir 4.3 International Space Station 4.4 Proposed5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksMechanics[edit] CMGs differ from reaction wheels. The latter apply torque simply by changing rotor spin speed, but the former tilt the rotor's spin axis without necessarily changing its spin speed. CMGs are also far more power efficient
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Apogee
An apsis (Greek: ἁψίς; plural apsides /ˈæpsɪdiːz/, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit
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Zvezda (ISS Module)
Zvezda (Russian: Звезда́, meaning "star"), DOS-8, also known as the Zvezda Service Module, is a component of the International Space Station (ISS). It was the third module launched to the station, and provides all of the station's life support systems, some of which are supplemented in the USOS, as well as living quarters for two crew members
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[2] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ ( listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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STS-121
(L-R) Wilson, Fossum, Lindsey, Sellers, Kelly, Reiter, Nowak. Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program← STS-114 STS-115 → STS-121
STS-121
was a 2006 NASA
NASA
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Discovery. The main purposes of the mission were to test new safety and repair techniques introduced following the Columbia disaster of February 2003 as well as to deliver supplies, equipment and European Space Agency
European Space Agency
(ESA) astronaut Thomas Reiter
Thomas Reiter
from Germany
Germany
to the ISS.[1] After two weather-related delays, the shuttle successfully launched on Tuesday, 4 July 2006 at 14:37:55 EDT. It was the first and only shuttle launch on the United States' Independence Day
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Thomas Reiter
Thomas Arthur Reiter (born 23 May 1958 in Frankfurt, West Germany) is a retired European astronaut and is a Brigadier General[1] in the German Air Force
German Air Force
currently working as ESA
ESA
Interagency Coordinator and Advisor to the Director General at the European Space Agency
European Space Agency
(ESA). He was one of the top 25 astronauts in terms of total time in space. With his wife and two sons he lives near Oldenburg in Lower Saxony.Contents1 Education 2 Astronaut
Astronaut
career 3 Honours and awards 4 References 5 External linksEducation[edit] He graduated from Goethe-High School in Neu-Isenburg
Neu-Isenburg
in 1977. In 1982, Reiter received his diploma in aerospace engineering from the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
University Munich. In 2010 the university awarded him an honorary doctorate degree
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Progress Spacecraft
The Progress (Russian: Прогресс) is a Russian expendable cargo spacecraft. Its purpose is to deliver supplies needed to sustain human presence in orbit. While it does not carry a crew it can be boarded by astronauts when docked with a space station, hence it being classified as manned by its manufacturer.[1][2][3] Progress is derived from the manned Soyuz spacecraft and launches on the same vehicle, a Soyuz rocket. Progress has supported space stations as early as Salyut 6
Salyut 6
and as recently as the International Space Station. Each year there are between three and four Progress flights to the ISS. A Progress remains docked until shortly before being replaced with a new one or a Soyuz (which will use the same docking port). Then it is filled with waste, disconnected, and de-orbited, at which point it burns up in the atmosphere
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Sergei Avdeyev
Sergei Vasilyevich Avdeyev (Сергей Васильеви Авдеев, born 1 January 1956) is a Russian engineer and cosmonaut. Avdeyev was born in Chapayevsk, Samara Oblast
Samara Oblast
(formerly Kuybyshev Oblast), Russian SFSR. He graduated from Moscow Physics-Engineering Institute in 1979 as an engineer-physicist. From 1979 to 1987 he worked as an engineer for NPO Energiya. He was selected as a cosmonaut as part of the Energia
Energia
Engineer
Engineer
Group 9 on 26 March 1987. His basic cosmonaut training was from December 1987 through to July 1989. He retired as a cosmonaut on 14 February 2003. Avdeyev at one point held the record for cumulative time spent in space with 747.59 days in earth orbit, accumulated through three tours of duty aboard the Mir
Mir
Space Station. He has orbited the earth 11,968 times traveling about 515,000,000 kilometers
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Multi-Purpose Logistics Module
A Multi-Purpose Logistics Module
Multi-Purpose Logistics Module
(MPLM) was a large pressurized container used on Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
missions to transfer cargo to and from the International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS). Two MPLMs made a dozen trips in the Shuttle cargo bay and initially berthed to the Unity module and later the Harmony module on the ISS. From there, supplies were offloaded, and finished experiments and waste were reloaded. The MPLM was then reberthed in the Shuttle for return to Earth. Three modules were built by the Italian Space Agency
Italian Space Agency
(ASI): Leonardo, Raffaello, and Donatello.[1] The Leonardo module was modified in 2010 to turn it into the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) and was permanently attached to the ISS during the STS-133
STS-133
mission in March 2011
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External Stowage Platform
External stowage platforms (ESPs) are key components of the International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS). Each platform is an external pallet that can hold spare parts, also known as orbital replacement units (ORUs), for the space station. As a platform it is not pressurized, but does require electricity to power the heaters of some of the stored equipment. ORUs are attached to the ESP via Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms (FRAMs), matching witness plates that mate the ORU to the platform. While ESP-1 is unique in shape, ESP-2 and ESP-3 were based on the deployable version of the Integrated Cargo Carriers (ICC), which were designed to transport unpressurized cargo inside the Space Shuttle's cargo bay
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Space Suit
A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure, and are necessary for extravehicular activity (EVA), work done outside spacecraft. Space suits have been worn for such work in Earth orbit, on the surface of the Moon, and en route back to Earth from the Moon. Modern space suits augment the basic pressure garment with a complex system of equipment and environmental systems designed to keep the wearer comfortable, and to minimize the effort required to bend the limbs, resisting a soft pressure garment's natural tendency to stiffen against the vacuum
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Space Walk
Extravehicular activity
Extravehicular activity
(EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere. The term most commonly applies to a spacewalk made outside a craft orbiting Earth (such as the International Space Station), but also has applied to lunar surface exploration (commonly known as moonwalks) performed by six pairs of American astronauts in the Apollo program from 1969 to 1972
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Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the orbiters from NASA's Space Shuttle program
Space Shuttle program
and the third of five fully operational orbiters to be built.[4] Its first mission, STS-41-D, flew from August 30 to September 5, 1984. Over 27 years of service it launched and landed 39 times, gathering more spaceflights than any other spacecraft to date.[5] Discovery became the third operational orbiter to enter service, preceded by Columbia and Challenger.[6] It embarked on its last mission, STS-133, on February 24, 2011 and touched down for the final time at Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
on March 9,[7] having spent a cumulative total of almost a full year in space. Discovery performed both research and International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS) assembly missions
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Orbital Period
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars. For objects in the Solar System, this is often referred to as the sidereal period, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky. When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the period
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