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European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
served in the armed forces between the following dates:between December 7, 1941 and March 2, 1946, for military service, in geographical theater areas of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East.Status InactiveStatisticsFirst awarded December 7, 1941Last awarded March 2, 1946PrecedenceEquivalent Asiatic–Pacific Campaign Medal American Campaign MedalNext (lower) World War II Victory Medalribbon and streamerThe European–African–Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
European–African–Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
is a military award of the United States Armed Forces
United States Armed Forces
which was first created on November 6, 1942 by Executive Order 9265 [1][2] issued by President Franklin D
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United States Department Of War
The United States Department of War, also called the War Department (and occasionally War Office in the early years), was the United States Cabinet department originally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army, also bearing responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department in 1798, and for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947. The Secretary of War, a civilian with such responsibilities as finance and purchases and a minor role in directing military affairs, headed the War Department throughout its existence. The War Department existed from August 7, 1789[1] until September 18, 1947, when it split into Department of the Army and Department of the Air Force and joined the Department of the Navy as part of the new joint National Military Establishment (NME), renamed the United States Department of Defense in 1949.Contents1 History1.1 1790–1
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Western Allied Invasion Of Germany
Decisive Allied victoryFall of Nazi Germany End of World War II
World War II
in Europe (concurrently with the Eastern Front)Belligerents United States  United Kingdom France  Canada  Poland Nazi Germany  Hungary[1]Commanders and leaders Adolf Hitler
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Operation Shingle
The Battle of Anzio[3] was a battle of the Italian Campaign of World War II that took place from January 22, 1944 (beginning with the Allied amphibious landing known as Operation Shingle) to June 5, 1944 (ending with the capture of Rome). The operation was opposed by German forces in the area of Anzio
Anzio
and Nettuno.[4] The operation was initially commanded by Major General John P. Lucas, of the U.S. Army, commanding U.S. VI Corps with the intention being to outflank German forces at the Winter Line
Winter Line
and enable an attack on Rome. The success of an amphibious landing at that location, in a basin consisting substantially of reclaimed marshland and surrounded by mountains, depended on the element of surprise and the swiftness with which the invaders could build up strength and move inland relative to the reaction time and strength of the defenders
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Battle Of Monte Cassino
 United Kingdom British India United States  Free France Poland Canada Australia New Zealand South Africa Italian Royalist Army and others Nazi Germany Italian Social Republic[1]Commanders and leaders Harold Alexander Oliver Leese Mark Clark Albert Kesselring Heinrich von Vietinghoff F. v
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Trasimene Line
The Trasimene Line
Trasimene Line
(so-named for Lake Trasimene, the site of a major battle of the Second Punic War
Second Punic War
in 217 BCE) was a German defensive line during the Italian Campaign of World War II. It was sometimes known as the Albert Line
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Invasion Of Normandy
Allies  United Kingdom  United States  Canada  Free France Polish armed forces in the West  Australia[nb 1] Free Belgian Forces  New Zealand Dutch government-in-exile Norwegian government-in-exile[1] Free Czechoslovak Forces Free Luxembourgish Forces[2] Greek government-in-exileAxis  GermanyCommanders and leaders Dwight D. Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Arthur Tedder (Deputy Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery
Bernard Montgomery
(21st Army Group, Ground Forces Commander in Chief) Trafford Leigh-Mallory
Trafford Leigh-Mallory
(Air Commander in Chief) Bertram Ramsay
Bertram Ramsay
(Naval Commander in Chief) Miles Dempsey
Miles Dempsey
(British 2nd Army) Omar Bradley
Omar Bradley
(U.S
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Operation Overlord
Civilian deaths:11,000–19,000 killed in pre-invasion bombing[21] 13,632–19,890 killed during invasion[22] Total: 25,000–39,000 killedv t eOperation Overlord Invasion of NormandyPreludeAtlantic Wall BodyguardFortitude Zeppelin Titanic Taxable, Glimmer & Big DrumCombined Bomber Offensive Pointblank Transport PlanPostage Able Tarbrush Tiger FabiusInitial Airborne Assault British SectorTongaDeadstick Merville BatteryMallardAmerican SectorAlbany Boston Chicago Detroit Elmira Normandy
Normandy
l
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Operation Dragoon
Allied victoryGerman forces withdraw from most of Southern France
France
to the Vosges regionBelligerents United States France French colonial empire United Kingdom  Canada[note]Air force only Australia  South Africa  Southern RhodesiaNaval only Greece Germany Vichy FranceCommanders and leaders Jacob L. Devers Henry Kent Hewitt
Henry Kent Hewitt
(naval forces) Alexander Patch
Alexander Patch
(7th Army) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny
Jean de Lattre de Tassigny
(Armée B) John K. Cannon
John K

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Gothic Line
The Gothic Line
Gothic Line
(German: Gotenstellung; Italian: Linea Gotica) was a German defensive line of the Italian Campaign of World War II. It formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring's last major line of defence along the summits of the northern part of the Apennine Mountains during the fighting retreat of the German forces in Italy
Italy
against the Allied Armies in Italy, commanded by General Sir Harold Alexander. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
had concerns about the state of preparation of the Gothic Line: he feared the Allies would use amphibious landings to outflank its defences. To downgrade its importance in the eyes of both friend and foe, he ordered the name, with its historic connotations, changed, reasoning that if the Allies managed to break through they would not be able to use the more impressive name to magnify their victory claims
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Allied Advance From Paris To The Rhine
U.S.: 240,082 casualties (50,410 killed, 172,450 wounded, 24,374 captured or missing) (15 September 1944 – 21 March 1945) U.K.: ~32,366 Canadian: ~15,000 France: 15,390-17,390[2] Total: 272,448+ [3]400,000+ casualties[4]~40,000 killed ~80,000 wounded 280,000+ capturedv t eWestern Front of World War IIprelude1939Phoney War Saar The Heligoland Bight1940Luxembourg The NetherlandsThe Hague Rotterdam Zeeland German bombing of RotterdamBelgiumFort Eben-Emael Hannut Gembloux La LysFranceSedan Montcornet Arras Lille Boulogne Calais Abbeville Paula Dunkirk Dunkirk
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Battle Of The Bulge
Allied victoryWestern Allied offensive plans delayed by five or six weeks[1] Disastrous offensive in the Ardennes
Ardennes
exhausted the resources of Germany
Germany
on the Western Front. The German collapse opened the way for the Allies to ultimately break the Siegfried Line Soviet offensive in Poland launched on 12 January 1945, eight days earlier than originally intended.[2]Belligerents United Kingdom  United States France  Canada  Belgium  Luxembourg GermanyCommanders and leaders Dwight D. Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (21st Army Group, First U.S. Army, Ninth U.S. Army) Omar Bradley (12th U.S. Army Group) Courtney Hodges (First U.S. Army) George S. Patton (Third U.S
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Spring 1945 Offensive In Italy
Allied victoryGerman surrender in Italy Partisans capture & execute Mussolini Collapse of the Italian Social RepublicBelligerents United Kingdom  United States Polish Army  British India  Brazil  New Zealand Italian Resistance  South Africa  Mandatory Palestine  Italy and others  Germany  Italian Social RepublicCommanders and leaders Harold Alexander Richard McCreery Mark Clark Lucian Truscott Heinrich von Vietinghoff (POW) Traugott Herr (POW) Joachim Lemelsen (POW) Benito Mussolini  Rodolfo Graziani (POW)Strength 15th Army Group[nb 1] Fifth Army 266,883 fighting strength[1] Eighth Army 632,980 fighting strength[2] Army Group C 394,000 fighting strength[3][nb 2] Tenth Army Fourteenth ArmyCasualties and losses16,258 casualties[nb 3] incl
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Allied Invasion Of Sicily
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Canada:[8] 2,721 KIA 7,939 wounded 2,183 MIA United States:[8] 2,811 KIA 6,471 wounded 686 MIA Italy:[9] 4,678 KIA 32,500 wounded 152,933 MIA/POW Germany:[9] 4,325 KIA 13,500 wounded 10,106 MIA/POWv t eBattle of the MediterraneanMalta Club Run¹ Malta Convoys¹ Axis Convoys² Espero ¹² Mers-el-Kébir Calabria¹² Cape Spada Hurry ¹ Cape Passero¹ MB8 ¹ Taranto Strait of Otranto² White ¹ Cape Spartivento¹ Excess ¹ Convoy AN 14¹ Genoa Abstention Souda Bay Matapan Tarigo ² Crete ² Substance
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Civil War Campaign Medal
The Civil War Campaign Medal
Civil War Campaign Medal
is considered the first campaign service medal of the United States Armed Forces. The decoration was awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces
United States Armed Forces
who had served in the American Civil War
American Civil War
between 1861 and 1865.[2]Contents1 Establishment 2 Description2.1 Obverse 2.2 Reverse3 Devices 4 References 5 External linksEstablishment[edit] The medal was first authorized in 1905 for the fortieth anniversary of the Civil War's conclusion. The blue and gray ribbon denotes the respective uniform colors of the U.S. and Confederate troops. The Army Civil War Campaign Medal
Civil War Campaign Medal
was established by the United States War Department on January 21, 1907, by General Orders Number 12. To qualify, a soldier had to serve between April 15, 1861, and April 9, 1865. In the U.S
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Indian Campaign Medal
The Indian Campaign Medal
Indian Campaign Medal
is a decoration established by War Department General Orders 12, 1907.[1] The medal was retroactively awarded to any soldier of the U.S. Army who had participated in the American Indian Wars
American Indian Wars
against the Native Americans between 1865 to 1891.Contents1 Background 2 Eligible campaigns 3 Appearance 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksBackground[edit] a. The Indian Campaign Medal
Indian Campaign Medal
was established by War Department General Orders 12 in 1907. It was created at the same time as the Civil War Campaign Medal. b. The initial ribbon was all red; however, two black stripes were added in December 1917 because of the similarity to a ribbon used by the French for the French Legion of Honor. c
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