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Eureptilia
†Brouffia †Coelostegus †Thuringothyris †Captorhinidae Romeriida Eureptilia
Eureptilia
("true reptiles") is one of the two major clades of the Sauropsida, the other being Parareptilia. Eureptilia
Eureptilia
includes not only all Diapsids, but also a number of primitive Permo- Carboniferous
Carboniferous
forms previously classified under the Anapsida, in the old (no longer recognised) order "Cotylosauria". Primitive were all small, superficially lizard-like forms, that probably scurried through the Paleozoic undergrowth in search of insects. The diapsids are the only eureptilian clade to continue beyond the Permian
Permian
Period
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Pennsylvanian (geology)
The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous
Carboniferous
or Late Carboniferous) is in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period. It lasted from roughly 323.2 million years ago to 298.9 million years ago Ma (million years ago). As with most other geochronologic units, the rock beds that define the Pennsylvanian are well identified, but the exact date of the start and end are uncertain by a few hundred thousand years. The Pennsylvanian is named after the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, where the coal-productive beds of this age are widespread.[1] The division between Pennsylvanian and Mississippian comes from North American stratigraphy
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Gecatogomphius
Gecatogomphius is an extinct genus of Middle Permian
Middle Permian
captorinid with multiple tooth rows known from the Kirov Oblast
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Baeotherates
Baeotherates is an extinct genus of Early Permian
Early Permian
captorinid known from Oklahoma
Oklahoma
of the United States.[1] Description[edit] Baeotherates is known from the holotype OMNH 55758, a right mandible (dentary). It was collected within the Dolese Brothers Limestone Quarry of Richard's Spur in Comanche County, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and found in the Garber Formation of the Sumner Group, which dates to the middle Sakmarian stage of the Early Permian, about 289 ± 0.68 million years ago.[1][2] Etymology[edit] Baeotherates was first named by W. J. May and Richard L. Cifelli in 1998 and the type species is Baeotherates fortsillensis. The generic name means "small hunter". The specific name named after the military base Fort Sill
Fort Sill
near the type locality.[1] References[edit]^ a b c W. J
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Acrodenta
Acrodenta is an extinct genus of Late Permian
Late Permian
captorinid known from Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz
Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz
of Morocco.[1] Description[edit] Acrodenta is known from the holotype MNHN ARG 506, formerly 69.Ir.1.JMD, a fragment of right maxilla. It was collected in the Douar of Irerhi locality from the Argana Formation (formerly known as the Tourbihine Member of the Ikakern Formation) of the Argana Basin, dating to the early-middle Wuchiapingian stage (or alternatively middle Tatarian
Tatarian
stage) of the early Lopingian
Lopingian
Series, about 260.5-255 million years ago.[1] Etymology[edit] Acrodenta was first named by Jean-Michel Dutuit in 1976 and the type species is Acrodenta irerhi. The generic name is derived from the Greek acra and denta, meaning is "high teeth"
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Hylonomus
Hylonomus
Hylonomus
(/haɪˈlɒnəməs/; hylo- "forest" + nomos "dweller")[1] is an extinct genus of reptile that lived 312 million years ago during the Late Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period.[2] It is the earliest unquestionable reptile ( Westlothiana
Westlothiana
is older, but in fact it may have been an amphibian, and Casineria
Casineria
is rather fragmentary). The only species is the type species Hylonomous lyelli. Description[edit]Skull reconstructionModel Hylonomus
Hylonomus
was 20–25 centimetres (8–10 in) long (including the tail). Most of them are 20 cm long and probably would have looked rather similar to modern lizards
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Paleothyris
Paleothyris
Paleothyris
was a small, agile, anapsid romeriidan reptile which lived in the Middle Pennsylvanian
Middle Pennsylvanian
epoch in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
(approximately 312 to 304 million years ago). Paleothyris
Paleothyris
had sharp teeth and large eyes, meaning that it was a nocturnal hunter. It was about a foot long. It probably fed on insects and other smaller animals found on the floor of its forest home
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Cladogram
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms. A cladogram is not, however, an evolutionary tree because it does not show how ancestors are related to descendants, nor does it show how much they have changed; many evolutionary trees can be inferred from a single cladogram.[1][2][3][4][5] A cladogram uses lines that branch off in different directions ending at a clade, a group of organisms with a last common ancestor. There are many shapes of cladograms but they all have lines that branch off from other lines. The lines can be traced back to where they branch off. These branching off points represent a hypothetical ancestor (not an actual entity) which can be inferred to exhibit the traits shared among the terminal taxa above it.[4][6] This hypothetical ancestor might then provide clues about the order of evolution of various features, adaptation, and other evolutionary narratives about ancestors
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Postorbital
The postorbital is one of the bones in vertebrate skulls which forms a portion of the dermal skull roof and, sometimes, a ring about the orbit. Generally, it is located behind the postfrontal and posteriorly to the orbital fenestra. In some vertebrates, the postorbital is fused with the postfrontal to create a postorbitofrontal. References[edit]Roemer, A. S. 1956. Osteology of the Reptiles. University of Chicago Press. 772 pp.This human musculoskeletal system article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis vertebrate anatomy-related article is a stub
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Tabular
A table is an arrangement of data in rows and columns, or possibly in a more complex structure. Tables are widely used in communication, research, and data analysis. Tables appear in print media, handwritten notes, computer software, architectural ornamentation, traffic signs, and many other places. The precise conventions and terminology for describing tables vary depending on the context
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Cotylosauria
Captorhinida
Captorhinida
is a doubly paraphyletic grouping of early reptiles. Robert L. Carroll (1988) ranked it as an order in the subclass Anapsida, composed of the following suborders:[1]A paraphyletic Captorhinomorpha, containing the families Protorothyrididae, Captorhinidae, Bolosauridae, Acleistorhinidae
Acleistorhinidae
and possibly also Batropetidae Procolophonia, containing families Nyctiphruretidae, Procolophonidae and Sclerosauridae Pareiasauroidea, with families Rhipaeosauridae
Rhipaeosauridae
and Pareiasauridae Millerosauroidea, with a single family Millerettidae.While they all share primitive features and resemble the ancestors of all modern reptiles, some of these families are more closely related to (or belong to) the clade Parareptilia, while others are further along the line leading to diapsids
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Clade
A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Holocene
The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Everett C. Olson
Everett Claire Olson (November 6, 1910 – November 27, 1993) was an American zoologist, paleontologist, and geologist noted for his seminal research of origin and evolution of vertebrate animals. [1][2][3] Olson identified a mass extinction that occurred 270 million years ago and which now carries his name - Olson's Extinction, also termed "Olson's Gap"
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