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Eurasia
EURASIA /jʊˈreɪʒə/ is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia
Asia
. The term is a portmanteau of its constituent continents ( Europe
Europe
thus, in some parts of the world, Eurasia
Eurasia
is recognized as the largest of five or six continents. In geology, Eurasia
Eurasia
is often considered as a single rigid megablock. However, the rigidity of Eurasia
Eurasia
is debated based on the paleomagnet data. Eurasia
Eurasia
covers around 55,000,000 square kilometres (21,000,000 sq mi), or around 36.2% of the Earth
Earth
's total land area. The landmass contains around 5.0 billion people, equating to approximately 70% of the human population . Humans first settled in Eurasia
Eurasia
between 60,000 and 125,000 years ago
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Classical Antiquity
CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY (also the CLASSICAL ERA, CLASSICAL PERIOD or CLASSICAL AGE) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome
Rome
, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world . It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe
Europe
, North Africa and Southwestern Asia . Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(5th century AD)
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Sea Of Marmara
The SEA OF MARMARA /ˈmɑːrmərə/ (Turkish : Marmara Denizi), also known as the SEA OF MARMORA or the MARMARA SEA, and in the context of classical antiquity as the PROPONTIS is the inland sea , entirely within the borders of Turkey
Turkey
, that connects the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts. The Bosphorus
Bosphorus
strait connects it to the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Dardanelles strait to the Aegean Sea. The former also separates Istanbul
Istanbul
into its Asian and European sides. The sea has an area of 11,350 km² (280 km x 80 km) with the greatest depth reaching 1,370 m (4,490 ft)
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Philippines
Coordinates : 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122 Republic
Republic
of the Philippines Republika ng Pilipinas Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: " Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa " "For God, People, Nature, and Country" ANTHEM: Lupang Hinirang
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Ireland
IRELAND (/ˈaɪərlənd/ ( listen ); Irish : Éire ( listen ); Ulster-Scots : Airlann ) is an island in the North Atlantic
North Atlantic
. It is separated from Great Britain
Great Britain
to its east by the North Channel , the Irish Sea , and St George\'s Channel . Ireland
Ireland
is the second-largest island of the British Isles
British Isles
, the third-largest in Europe
Europe
, and the twentieth-largest on Earth
Earth
. Politically, Ireland
Ireland
is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland
Ireland
), which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, which is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, in the northeast of the island
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Paleomagnetism
This term is also sometimes used for natural remanent magnetization . Magnetic stripes are the result of reversals of the Earth's field and seafloor spreading. New oceanic crust is magnetized as it forms and then it moves away from the ridge in both directions. The models show a ridge (a) about 5 million years ago (b) about 2 to 3 million years ago and (c) in the present. PALEOMAGNETISM (or PALAEOMAGNETISM in the United Kingdom) is the study of the record of the Earth\'s magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials. Certain minerals in rocks lock-in a record of the direction and intensity of the magnetic field when they form. This record provides information on the past behavior of Earth's magnetic field and the past location of tectonic plates . The record of geomagnetic reversals preserved in volcanic and sedimentary rock sequences (magnetostratigraphy ) provides a time-scale that is used as a geochronologic tool
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Ural Mountains
The URAL MOUNTAINS (Russian : Ура́льские го́ры, tr. Uralskiye gory; IPA: ; Bashkir : Урал тауҙары, Ural tauźarı), or simply THE URALS, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia
Russia
, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
. The mountain range forms part of the conventional boundary between the continents of Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
. Vaygach Island and the islands of Novaya Zemlya
Novaya Zemlya
form a further continuation of the chain to the north into the Arctic Ocean. The mountains lie within the Ural geographical region and significantly overlap with the Ural Federal District and with the Ural economic region
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Suez Canal
The SUEZ CANAL ( Arabic
Arabic
: قناة السويس‎‎ qanāt as-suwēs) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt
Egypt
, connecting the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the Red Sea
Red Sea
through the Isthmus of Suez
Suez
. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company
Suez Canal Company
between 1859 and 1869, it was officially opened on November 17, 1869. The canal offers watercraft a shorter journey between the North Atlantic
Atlantic
and northern Indian Oceans via the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Red seas by avoiding the South Atlantic
Atlantic
and southern Indian oceans , in turn reducing the journey by approximately 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi)
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First Millennium BC
The 1ST MILLENNIUM BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC . The Neo-Assyrian Empire develops, followed by the Achaemenids . In Greece, Classical Antiquity begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the rise of Hellenism . The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire . In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire . The early Celts dominate Central Europe while Northern Europe is in the Pre-Roman Iron Age . The Scythians dominate Central Asia. In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism . Towards the close of the millennium, the Han Dynasty extends Chinese power towards Central Asia, where it borders on Indo-Greek and Iranian states. Yayoi period in Japanese islands. The Maya civilization rises in Central America, while in Africa, Ancient Egypt begins its decline, rise of the Nubian Empire , and Aksum 's birth
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Subtropics
The SUBTROPICS are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
and Tropic of Capricorn ) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator
Equator
. Subtropical climates are often characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Most subtropical climates fall into two basic types - humid subtropical , where rainfall is often concentrated in the warmest months (for example Brisbane
Brisbane
or Jacksonville, Florida ) and dry summer (or Mediterranean ), where seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the cooler months (for example Naples
Naples
, Italy
Italy
or Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles, California
)
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Indus Valley
The INDUS RIVER (Urdu : دریائے سندھ‎; Hindi :सिंधु; Chinese : 印度河) also called SINDHū or ABāSīN, is a major south-flowing river in South Asia
South Asia
. It is the namesake of the modern nation of India
India
. The total length of the river is 3,610 km (1,988mi) which makes it one of the longest rivers in Asia . Originating in the western part of Tibet
Tibet
in the vicinity of Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar , the river runs a course through Ladakh , Gilgit-Baltistan , and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
, and then flows along the entire length of Punjab
Punjab
to merge into the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
near the city of Thatta in Sindh
Sindh
. It is the longest river and national river of Pakistan
Pakistan

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Craton
A CRATON ( /ˈkreɪtɒn/ , /ˈkrætɒn/ , or /ˈkreɪtən/ ; from Greek : κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere , where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle . Having often survived cycles of merging and rifting of continents , cratons are generally found in the interiors of tectonic plates . They are characteristically composed of ancient crystalline basement rock , which may be covered by younger sedimentary rock . They have a thick crust and deep lithospheric roots that extend as much as several hundred kilometres into the Earth's mantle . The term craton is used to distinguish the stable portion of the continental crust from regions that are more geologically active and unstable. Cratons can be described as shields , in which the basement rock crops out at the surface, and platforms , in which the basement is overlaid by sediments and sedimentary rock
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Ecosystem
An ECOSYSTEM is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem). Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of an ecosystem. The energy that flows through ecosystems is obtained primarily from the sun. It generally enters the system through photosynthesis , a process that also captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. By feeding on plants and on one another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system
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Social Construct
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM or the SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY (also SOCIAL CONCEPT) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality. The theory centers on the notions that human beings rationalize their experience by creating models of the social world and share and reify these models through language
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Physical Geography
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY (also known as GEOSYSTEMS or PHYSIOGRAPHY) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography . Physical geography
Physical geography
is that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere , hydrosphere , biosphere , and geosphere , as opposed to the cultural or built environment , the domain of human geography . CONTENTS * 1 Sub-branches * 2 Journals and literature * 3 Historical evolution of the discipline * 4 Notable physical geographers * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links SUB-BRANCHES A natural arch . Physical Geography
Geography
can be divided into several sub-fields, as follows: * GEOMORPHOLOGY is the field concerned with understanding the surface of the Earth and the processes by which it is shaped, both at the present as well as in the past
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates : 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere highlighted in blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North Pole
North Pole
The NORTHERN HEMISPHERE is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the equator . For other planets in the Solar System
Solar System
, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's North
North
pole
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