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Eupteleaceae
Euptelea
Euptelea
is a genus of two species[2] of flowering plants in the monogeneric family Eupteleaceae. The genus is found from Assam
Assam
east through China
China
to Japan, and consists of shrubs or small trees: Euptelea
Euptelea
pleiosperma Euptelea
Euptelea
polyandraThe genus was previously placed in the family Trochodendraceae, but the family Eupteleaceae has been recognized by many taxonomists. The APG IV system
APG IV system
(2016;[1] unchanged from the APG III system of 2009,[3] the APG II system
APG II system
of 2003 and the APG system of 1998), recognizes it and places it in the order Ranunculales, in the clade eudicots
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Encyclopedia Of Life
The Encyclopedia of Life
Life
(EOL) is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9 million living species known to science. It is compiled from existing databases and from contributions by experts and non-experts throughout the world.[2] It aims to build one "infinitely expandable" page for each species, including video, sound, images, graphics, as well as text.[3] In addition, the Encyclopedia incorporates content from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, which digitizes millions of pages of printed literature from the world's major natural history libraries. The project was initially backed by a US$50 million funding commitment, led by the MacArthur Foundation
MacArthur Foundation
and the Sloan Foundation, who provided US$20 million and US$5 million, respectively
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The Engrailed
Ectropis
Ectropis
bistortata Goeze, 1781The engrailed and small engrailed ( Ectropis
Ectropis
crepuscularia) are moths of the family Geometridae
Geometridae
found from the British Isles
British Isles
through Central and Eastern Europe to the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
and Kazakhstan. The western Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the Caucasus
Caucasus
represent the southern limit of the distribution (with the Balkan countries). In the north, the distribution area ends at the Arctic circle. It also occurs in North America. Debate exists as to whether they make up one species, or whether E
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Sepal
A sepal (/ˈsɛpəl/ or /ˈsiːpəl/)[1][2][3] is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants). Usually green, sepals typically function as protection for the flower in bud, and often as support for the petals when in bloom.[4] The term sepalum was coined by Noël Martin Joseph de Necker in 1790, and derived from the Greek σκεπη (skepi), a covering.[5][6] Collectively the sepals are called the calyx (plural calyces),[7] the outermost whorl of parts that form a flower. The word calyx was adopted from the Latin calyx,[8] not to be confused with calix, a cup or goblet.[9] Calyx derived from the Greek κάλυξ (kalyx), a bud, a calyx, a husk or wrapping, (cf Sanskrit kalika, a bud)[10] while calix derived from the Greek κυλιξ (kylix), a cup or goblet, and the words have been used interchangeably in botanical Latin.[11] After flowering, most plants have no more use for the calyx which withers or becomes vestigial
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Petal
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They are often brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals, that collectively form the calyx and lie just beneath the corolla. The calyx and the corolla together make up the perianth. When the petals and sepals of a flower are difficult to distinguish, they are collectively called tepals. Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe
Aloe
and Tulipa. Conversely, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus
Phaseolus
have well-distinguished sepals and petals. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals
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Anther
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium.[1]Contents1 Morphology and terminology 2 Etymology 3 Variation in morphology 4 Pollen
Pollen
production 5 Sexual reproduction in plants 6 Descriptive terms 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksMorphology and terminology[edit] A stamen typically consists of a stalk called the filament and an anther which contains microsporangia. Most commonly anthers are two-lobed and are attached to the filament either at the base or in the middle area of the anther. The sterile tissue between the lobes is called the connective. A pollen grain develops from a microspore in the microsporangium and contains the male gametophyte. The stamens in a flower are collectively called the androecium. The androecium can consist of as few as one-half stamen (i.e
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Phyllotaxis
In botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
phýllon "leaf" and táxis "arrangement").[1] Phyllotactic spirals form a distinctive class of patterns in nature.Contents1 Leaf
Leaf
arrangement 2 Repeating spiral 3 Determination 4 History 5 Mathematics 6 In art and architecture 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Leaf
Leaf
arrangement[edit]Opposite leaf patternWhorled leaf patternTwo different examples of the alternate (spiral) leaf patternThe basic arrangements of leaves on a stem are opposite, or alternate = spiral. Leaves may also be whorled if several leaves arise, or appear to arise, from the same level (at the same node) on a stem. This arrangement is fairly unusual on plants except for those with particularly short internodes
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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Wikidata
Wikidata
Wikidata
is a collaboratively edited knowledge base hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is intended to provide a common source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as,[4][5] and by anyone else, under a public domain license. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata
Wikidata
is powered by the software Wikibase.[6]Contents1 Concepts 2 Development history2.1 Phase 1 2.2 Phase 2 2.3 Phase 33 Reception 4 Logo 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksConcepts[edit]ScreenshotsThree statements from Wikidata's item on the planet Mars
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EPPO Code
An EPPO code, formerly known as a Bayer code, is an encoded identifier that is used by the European and Mediterranean Plant
Plant
Protection Organization (EPPO), in a system designed to uniquely identify organisms – namely plants, pests and pathogens – that are important to agriculture and crop protection. EPPO codes are a core component of a database of names, both scientific and vernacular. Although originally started by the Bayer Corporation, the official list of codes is now maintained by EPPO.[1]Contents1 EPPO code database1.1 Example2 External links 3 ReferencesEPPO code database[edit] All codes and their associated names are included in a database (EPPO Global Database). In total, there are over 68,500 species listed in the EPPO database, including:[2]36,000 species of plants (e.g. cultivated, wild plants and weeds) 24,000 species of animals (e.g. insects, mites, nematodes, rodents), biocontrol agents 8,500 microorganism species (e.g
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Larva
A larva (plural: larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle. The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies) including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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Flora Of China
The flora of China
China
is diverse. More than 30,000 plant species are native to China, representing nearly one-eighth of the world's total plant species, including thousands found nowhere else on Earth. China
China
contains a variety of forest types. Both northeast and northwest reaches contain mountains and cold coniferous forests, supporting animal species which include moose and Asiatic black bear, along with some 120 types of birds. Moist conifer forests can have thickets of bamboo as an understorey, replaced by rhododendrons in higher montane stands of juniper and yew
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Global Biodiversity Information Facility
The Global Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Information Facility (GBIF) is an international organisation that focuses on making scientific data on biodiversity available via the Internet
Internet
using web services. The data are provided by many institutions from around the world; GBIF's information architecture makes these data accessible and searchable through a single portal. Data available through the GBIF portal are primarily distribution data on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes for the world, and scientific names data. The mission of the Global Biodiversity
Biodiversity
information Facility (GBIF) is to facilitate free and open access to biodiversity data worldwide to underpin sustainable development
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Germplasm Resources Information Network
Germplasm
Germplasm
Resources Information Network or GRIN is an online USDA National Genetic Resources Program software project to comprehensively manage the computer database for the holdings of all plant germplasm collected by the National Plant Germplasm
Germplasm
System.[1] GRIN has extended its role to manage information on the germplasm reposits of insect (invertebrate), microbial, and animal species (see Sub-Projects).[2]Contents1 Description 2 Sub-projects 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] The site is a resource for identifying taxonomic information (scientific names) as well as common names[3] on more than 500,000 accessions (distinct varieties, cultivars etc.) of plants covering 10,000 species;[4][5] both economically important ones[3] and wild species
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