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Euphrates
The EUPHRATES (/juːˈfreɪtiːz/ ( listen ); Sumerian : 𒌓𒄒𒉣: Buranuna, Akkadian
Akkadian
: 𒌓𒄒𒉣: Purattu, Arabic
Arabic
: الفرات‎‎: al-Furāt, Syriac : ̇ܦܪܬ‎: Pǝrāt, Armenian : Եփրատ: Yeprat, Hebrew : פרת‎‎: Perat, Turkish : Fırat, Kurdish : Firat‎) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia
Western Asia
. Together with the Tigris
Tigris
, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land between the Rivers"). Originating in eastern Turkey
Turkey
, the Euphrates
Euphrates
flows through Syria
Syria
and Iraq
Iraq
to join the Tigris
Tigris
in the Shatt al-Arab , which empties into the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

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Kuwait
Coordinates : 29°30′N 45°45′E / 29.500°N 45.750°E / 29.500; 45.750 State of Kuwait * دولة الكويت ( Arabic
Arabic
) * Dawlat al-Kuwait Flag Emblem ANTHEM: * " Al-Nasheed Al-Watani " * "National Anthem" * Location of Kuwait
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Drainage Basin
A DRAINAGE BASIN is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river , bay , or other body of water . The drainage basin includes all the surface water from rain runoff , snowmelt , and nearby streams that run downslope towards the shared outlet, as well as the groundwater underneath the earth's surface. Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at lower elevations in a hierarchical pattern , with smaller SUB-DRAINAGE BASINS, which in turn drain into another common outlet. Other terms used interchangeably with drainage basin are CATCHMENT AREA, CATCHMENT BASIN, DRAINAGE AREA, RIVER BASIN, and WATER BASIN. In North America , the term WATERSHED is commonly used to mean a drainage basin, though in other English-speaking countries, it is used only in its original sense, that of a drainage divide
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Iran
IRAN (Persian : ایران‬‎ Irān ( listen )), also known as PERSIA (/ˈpɜːrʒə/ ), officially the ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN (Persian : جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎‬‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen )), is a sovereign state in Western Asia . With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country . Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Basra Governorate
BASRA GOVERNORATE (Arabic : محافظة البصرة‎‎‎ Muḥāfaẓa al-Baṣra) (or BASRA PROVINCE) is a governorate in southern Iraq
Iraq
, bordering Kuwait
Kuwait
to the south and Iran
Iran
to the east. The capital is the city of Basra
Basra
. Other districts of Basra
Basra
include Al-Qurnah , Az Zubayr , Al Midaina , Shatt Al Arab
Shatt Al Arab
, Abu Al Khaseeb and Al Faw located on the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

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Armenian Language
The ARMENIAN LANGUAGE (classical : հայերէն; reformed : հայերեն hayeren) occupies an independent branch of the Indo-European language tree. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
and the Republic of Artsakh
Republic of Artsakh
. It has historically been spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands
and today is widely spoken in the Armenian diaspora . Armenian is written using the Armenian alphabet
Armenian alphabet
, introduced in AD 405 by Mesrop Mashtots . Armenian has developed since the separation from Indo-European mother tongue in the third millennium BC to at least the time of the first Armenian dynasty (the Yervanduni dynasty , founded in the 6th century BC). Hellenistic influences during the Artashesian Dynasty (2nd century BC to 1st century AD) led to word borrowings from Greek and Latin
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Ancient Greek
The ANCIENT GREEK language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
( Koine Greek
Koine Greek
, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Arabic Language
ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah ( listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎ ʻarabī ( listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world
Arab world
. It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula . The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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Turkish Language
Turkey
Turkey
(official), Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
(official), Cyprus
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Semitic Languages
The SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East . Semitic languages are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia , North Africa and the Horn of Africa , as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America and Europe , with smaller communities in the Caucasus and Central Asia . The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History , who derived the name from Shem , one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis
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Lake Qadisiyah
A man-made reservoir in Al-Anbar , Iraq
Iraq
, LAKE QADISIYAH (Arabic : بحيرة القادسية‎‎) sits on the north side of the Haditha Dam . Qadisiyah was formed by the damming of the Euphrates River above Haditha, Iraq. It has 100 kilometres of shoreline and provides irrigation water for nearby cultivated fields. On December 3, 2006, it was the site of an emergency landing by an American forces CH-46E Sea Knight helicopter from the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing that resulted in the drowning deaths of four out of its sixteen passengers
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Syriac Language
SYRIAC /ˈsɪri.æk/ (ܠܶܫܳܢܳܐ ܣܽܘܪܝܳܝܳܐ Leššānā Suryāyā), also known as SYRIAC ARAMAIC or CLASSICAL SYRIAC, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic
Aramaic
that is the minority language of Syrian Christians in eastern Turkey
Turkey
, northern Iraq
Iraq
, and northeastern Syria . It is also the liturgical language of several churches. It was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
and Eastern Arabia
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Eastern Turkey
The EASTERN ANATOLIA REGION (Turkish : Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey
Turkey
. The region and the name "Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi" were first defined at the First Geography Congress in 1941. It has the highest average altitude, largest geographical area, and lowest population density of all regions of Turkey. Prior to getting its current name by the Turkish state , most of the region was part of the Six Armenian provinces in the region known as the Armenian Highlands . After the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
, the geopolitical term "Eastern Anatolia" was created to replace what had historically been known as Armenia
Armenia

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Al-Qurnah
AL-QURNAH (QURNA) is a town in southern Iraq
Iraq
about 74 km northwest of Basra
Basra
, within the town of Nahairat. Qurna (Arabic for connection/joint) is located at the confluence point of the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates
Euphrates
rivers join to form the Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab
. Local folklore holds Qurna to have been the site of the Garden of Eden . An ancient jujube tree (recently dead) is locally celebrated and shown to the tourists as the actual Tree of Knowledge of the Bible
Bible
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Current conditions * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe town experienced the Battle of Qurna during the Mesopotamian Campaign of World War I
World War I
, when the British defeated Ottoman troops who had retreated from Basra
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Elamite Language
ELAMITE is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites
Elamites
. It was used in present-day southwestern Iran
Iran
from 2800 to 550 BC. The last written records in Elamite appear around the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
. Elamite has no demonstrable relatives and is usually considered a language isolate . The lack of established relatives is one reason for its interpretation being difficult. CONTENTS * 1 Writing system * 2 Linguistic typology * 3 History * 4 Phonology * 5 Morphology * 5.1 Nouns * 5.2 Verbs * 6 Syntax * 6.1 Language samples * 7 Relations to other language families * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links WRITING SYSTEM Elamite cuneiform , adapted from Akkadian cuneiform , was used from ca. 2500 to 331 BC
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