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Euchambersia
Euchambersia
Euchambersia
is a genus of therocephalian therapsid that lived during the Late Permian, approximately 255 million years ago, in what is now South Africa. The genus contains a single species, E. mirabilis, named by paleontologist Robert Broom
Robert Broom
in 1931 from a skull missing the lower jaws; a second skull, belonging to an immature individual, was later described. It is a member of the family Akidnognathidae, which historically has also been referred by as the synonymous Euchambersiidae (named after Euchambersia). Euchambersia
Euchambersia
was a small and short-snouted therocephalian, possessing large canines as is typical of the group. However, it is notable among therocephalians for possessing ridges on its canines and a large indentation in the side of the skull
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Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone
The Cistecephalus
Cistecephalus
Assemblage Zone
Assemblage Zone
is a geological stratum and a faunal zone of the Beaufort Group, of the South African Karoo. The name refers to Cistecephalus, a genus of small burrowing, mole-like dicynodont, whose fossils have been found in that structure.Contents1 Paleobiota1.1 Synapsids1.1.1 †Anomodonts 1.1.2 †Biarmosuchians 1.1.3 †Gorgonopsians1.2 Sauropsids1.2.1 †Eosuchians 1.2.2 †Millerosaurs 1.2.3 Procolophonomorphs2 References 3 External linksPaleobiota[edit] Synapsids[edit] †Anomodonts[edit]Color keyTaxon Reclassified taxon Taxon
Taxon
falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon MorphotaxonNotes Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes ImagesCistecephalus C
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Incisor
Incisors (from Latin
Latin
incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals. They are located in the premaxilla above and on the mandible below. Humans have a total of eight (two on each side, top and bottom). Opossums have 18, whereas armadillos have none.[1]Contents1 Structure1.1 Other animals2 Function 3 Additional images 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksStructure[edit] Adult humans normally have eight incisors, two of each type. The types of incisor are:maxillary central incisor (upper jaw, closest to the center of the lips) maxillary lateral incisor (upper jaw, beside the maxillary central incisor) mandibular central incisor (lower jaw, closest to the center of the lips) mandibular lateral incisor (lower jaw, beside the mandibular central incisor)Children with a full set of deciduous teeth (primary teeth) also have eight incisors, named the same way as in permanent teeth
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Jugal Bone
The jugal is a skull bone found in most reptiles, amphibians and birds. In mammals, the jugal is often called the malar or Zygomatic. It is connected to the quadratojugal and maxilla, as well as other bones, which may vary by species. In dinosaurs[edit] This bone is considered key in the determination of general traits of the skull, in the case of creatures, as with dinosaurs in paleontology, whose entire skull has not been found. The jugal bone forms the cheek area in dinosaurs, and is part of the series of bones termed the circumorbital series, as they define the margins of the orbit. Additionally, in some dinosaur genera the jugal also forms part of the lower margin of either the antorbital fenestra or the infratemporal fenestra, or both. Most commonly, this bone articulates with the quadratojugal, the postorbital, the lacrimal, and the maxilla.[1] The boundaries where some of these bones meet with the others are called sutures
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Prefrontal Bone
The prefrontal bone is a bone separating the lacrimal and frontal bones in many tetrapod skulls. It first evolved in the sarcopterygian clade Rhipidistia, which includes lungfish and the Tetrapodomorpha.[1] The prefrontal is found in most modern and extinct lungfish, amphibians and reptiles. The prefrontal is lost in early mammaliaforms and so is not present in modern mammals either.[2] In dinosaurs[edit] The prefrontal bone is a very small bone near the top of the skull, which is lost in many groups of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaurs and is completely absent in their modern descendants, the birds. Conversely, a well developed prefrontal is considered to be a primitive feature in dinosaurs. The prefrontal makes contact with several other bones in the skull. The anterior part of the bone articulates with the nasal bone and the lacrimal bone. The posterior part of the bone articulates with the frontal bone and more rarely the palpebral bone
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Frontal Bone
The frontal bone is a bone in the human skull. The bone consists of three portions.[1] These are the squamous part, the orbital part, and the nasal part, making up the bony part of the forehead, part of the bony orbital cavity holding the eye, and part of the bony part of the nose respectively. The name comes from the Latin
Latin
word frons (meaning "forehead").Contents1 Structure1.1 Borders 1.2 Development2 Other animals2.1 Dinosaurs3 Additional Images 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksStructure[edit] The frontal bone is made up of three parts. These are the squamous part, the orbital part and the nasal part. The squamous part marks the flat and also the biggest part, and the main region of the forehead. The orbital part is the horizontal and second biggest region of the frontal bone. It enters into the formation of the roofs of the orbital and nasal cavities
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Pineal Gland
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles. The shape of the gland resembles a pine cone, hence its name. The pineal gland is located in the epithalamus, near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join.[1][2] Nearly all vertebrate species possess a pineal gland. The most important exception is a primitive vertebrate, the hagfish
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Pterygoid Bone
The pterygoid is a paired bone forming part of the palate of many vertebrates, behind the palatine bones. In humans it becomes the pterygoid processes of the sphenoid bone.This anatomy article is a stub
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Palatine Bone
The palatine bones (/ˈpælətaɪn/[1][2]) are two irregular bones of the facial skeleton in many animal species. Together with the maxillae they comprise the hard palate. (Palate is derived from the Latin palatum, which is unrelated to palatium 'palace', from which other senses of palatine derive).Contents1 Structure 2 Function 3 Other animals 4 Additional images 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] The palatine bones are situated at the back part of the nasal cavity between the maxilla and the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone. They contribute to the walls of three cavities: the floor and lateral walls of the nasal cavity, the roof of the mouth, and the floor of the orbits
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Palate
The palate /ˈpælɪt/ is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals. It separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity.[1] A similar structure is found in crocodilians, but, in most other tetrapods, the oral and nasal cavities are not truly separate
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CT Scan
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray
X-ray
measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting. Other terms include computed axial tomography (CAT scan) and computer aided tomography. Digital geometry processing is used to further generate a three-dimensional volume of the inside of the object from a large series of two-dimensional radiographic images taken around a single axis of rotation.[2] Medical imaging
Medical imaging
is the most common application of X-ray
X-ray
CT
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Premaxilla
The premaxilla (or praemaxilla) is one of a pair of small cranial bones at the very tip of the upper jaw of many animals, usually, but not always, bearing teeth. In humans, they are fused with the maxilla and usually termed as the incisive bone. Other terms used for this structure include premaxillary bone or os premaxillare, and intermaxillary bone or os intermaxillare.Contents1 Human anatomy1.1 Embryology2 Evolutionary variation 3 ReferencesHuman anatomy[edit] In humans, the premaxilla is referred to as the incisive bone and is the part of the maxilla which bears the incisor teeth, and encompasses the anterior nasal spine and alar region. In the nasal cavity, the premaxillary element projects higher than the maxillary element behind. The palatal portion of the premaxilla is a bony plate with a generally transverse orientation. The incisive foramen is bound anteriorly and laterally by the premaxilla and posteriorly by the palatine process of the maxilla
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Dental Alveolus
Dental alveoli (singular alveolus) are sockets in the jaws in which the roots of teeth are held in the alveolar process with the periodontal ligament. The lay term for dental alveoli is tooth sockets. A joint that connects the roots of the teeth and the alveolus is called gomphosis (plural gomphoses). Alveolar bone
Alveolar bone
is the bone that surrounds the roots of the teeth forming bone sockets. In mammals, tooth sockets are found in the maxilla, the premaxilla, and the mandible.Contents1 Socket preservation 2 Pathology 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksSocket preservation[edit] Socket preservation or alveolar ridge preservation (ARP)[1] is a procedure to reduce bone loss after tooth extraction to preserve the dental alveolus (tooth socket) in the alveolar bone
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Canine Tooth
In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dog teeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. However, they can appear more flattened, causing them to resemble incisors and leading them to be called incisiform. They developed and are used primarily for firmly holding food in order to tear it apart, and occasionally as weapons. They are often the largest teeth in a mammal's mouth. Most species that develop them normally have four per mammal, two in the upper jaw and two in the lower, separated within each jaw by its incisors; humans and dogs are examples
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Theriodonts
Theriodonts ("beast tooth", referring to more mammal-like teeth) are a major group of therapsids. They can be defined in traditional, Linnaean terms, in which case they are a suborder of synapsids that lived from the Middle Permian
Middle Permian
to the Middle Cretaceous, or in cladistic terms, in which case they include not only the traditional theriodonts but also their descendants the mammals as well (in the same way that, cladistically speaking, the theropod dinosaurs include the birds as a sub-clade). Theriodonts appeared almost the same time as the anomodonts, about 265 million years ago, in the Middle Permian. Even these early theriodonts were more mammal-like than their Anomodont
Anomodont
and Dinocephalian contemporaries.Scylacosaurus.Theriodonts fall into three main groups: Gorgonopsia, Therocephalia and Cynodontia. Early theriodonts may have been warm-blooded
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Gorgonopsia
See below Gorgonopsia
Gorgonopsia
(" Gorgon
Gorgon
face") is an extinct suborder of theriodonts. Like other therapsids, gorgonopsians (or gorgonopsids) were at one time called "mammal-like reptiles", although this is not accurate.Contents1 Description 2 Evolutionary history 3 Classification 4 Paleobiology 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingDescription[edit] Their mammalian specializations include differentiated (heterodont) tooth shape, a fully developed temporal fenestra, pillar-like rear legs, a vaulted palate that may have facilitated breathing while holding the prey, and incipiently developed ear bones.[1] Gorgonopsians are a part of a group of therapsids called theriodonts, which includes mammals.[2] They were among the largest carnivores of the late Permian
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