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Etruscan Language
The Etruscan language
Etruscan language
(/ɪˈtrʌskən/)[3] was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria
Etruria
(modern Tuscany
Tuscany
plus western Umbria
Umbria
and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy
Lombardy
and Emilia-Romagna. Etruscan influenced Latin, but was eventually completely superseded by it
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Aulus Gellius
Aulus Gellius
Aulus Gellius
(c. 125 – after 180 AD) was a Latin
Latin
author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome. He was educated in Athens, after which he returned to Rome, where he held a judicial office. He is famous for his Attic Nights, a commonplace book, or compilation of notes on grammar, philosophy, history, antiquarianism, and other subjects, preserving fragments of the works of many authors who might otherwise be unknown today.Contents1 Life 2 Writings 3 Editions 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading7.1 Translations 7.2 Studies8 External linksLife[edit] The only source for the life of Aulus Gellius
Aulus Gellius
is the details recorded in his writings.[1] He was of good family and connections, possibly of African origin,[2] but he was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome
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Agglutinating
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination: words may contain different morphemes to determine their meanings, but all of these morphemes (including stems and affixes) remain, in every aspect, unchanged after their unions, thus resulting in generally more easily deducible word meanings if compared to fusional languages, which allow modifications in either or both the phonetics or spelling of one or more morphemes within a word, usually shortening the word or providing easier pronunciation
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4th Century
The 4th century
4th century
(per the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
and Anno Domini/Common era) was the time period which lasted from 301
301
to 400. In the West, the early part of the century was shaped by Constantine the Great, who became the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. Gaining sole reign of the empire, he is also noted for re-establishing a single imperial capital, choosing the site of ancient Byzantium
Byzantium
in 330 (over the current capitals, which had effectively been changed by Diocletian's reforms to Milan
Milan
in the West, and Nicomedeia in the East) to build the city soon called Nova Roma (New Rome); it was later renamed Constantinople
Constantinople
in his honor. The last emperor to control both the eastern and western halves of the empire was Theodosius I
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Lightning
Lightning
Lightning
is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm. This discharge occurs between electrically charged regions of a cloud (called intra-cloud lightning or IC), between two clouds (CC lightning), or between a cloud and the ground (CG lightning). The charged regions in the atmosphere temporarily equalize themselves through this discharge referred to as a flash. A lightning flash can also be a strike if it involves an object on the ground
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Loanword
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation
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Italian Peninsula
42°N 14°E / 42°N 14°E / 42; 14 37°N 15°E / 37°N 15°E / 37; 15Area 131,337 km2 (50,709 sq mi)Highest point Corno GrandeAdministration ItalyLargest settlement Rome San MarinoLargest settlement Dogana  Vatican CityLargest settlement Itself (City-state)DemographicsDemonym ApenninenPop. density 199.27 /km2 (516.11 /sq mi)Ethnic groups ItalianThe Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends 1,000 km (620 mi) from the Po Valley
Po Valley
in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the south. The peninsula's shape gives it the nickname lo Stivale (the Boot)
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Divination
Divination
Divination
(from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god",[2] related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.[3] Used in various forms throughout history, diviners ascertain their interpretations of how a querent should proceed by reading signs, events, or omens, or through alleged contact with a supernatural agency.[4] Divination
Divination
can be seen as a systematic method with which to organize what appear to be disjointed, random facets of existence such that they provide insight into a problem at hand. If a distinction is to be made between divination and fortune-telling, divination has a more formal or ritualistic element and often contains a more social character, usually in a religious context, as seen in traditional African medicine
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Ablaut
In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).Contents1 Description 2 Types2.1 Vowel
Vowel
gradation 2.2 Prosodic apophony 2.3
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Lombardy
Lombardy
Lombardy
(/ˈlɒmbərdi/ LOM-bər-dee; Italian: Lombardia [lombarˈdiːa]; Lombard: Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard) [lumbarˈdiːa], (Eastern Lombard) [lombarˈdeːa]) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres (9,206 sq mi)
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Vowel System
Paired vowels are: unrounded • roundedManners of articulationObstruent    Stop     Affricate     Fricative        Strident            SibilantSonorant    Nasal     Approximant        Semivowel    Vowel     Vibrant        Flap/Tap         TrillLiquid    Rhotic     LateralOcclusive ContinuantAirstreamsEgressive Ingressive Ejective Implosive Nonexplosive Lingual (clicks) Linguo-pulmonic Linguo-ejective PercussiveSee alsoArticulatory phonetics Aspirated consonant No au
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Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero[n 1] (/ˈsɪsəroʊ/; Classical Latin: [ˈmaːr.kʊs ˈtʊl.lɪ.ʊs ˈkɪ.kɛ.roː]; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman politician and lawyer, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.[2][3] His influence on the Latin
Latin
language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in
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Religion In Ancient Rome
Religion in Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome
Rome
that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome
Rome
and Italy. The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, and attributed their success as a world power to their collective piety (pietas) in maintaining good relations with the gods
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Livy
Titus Livius Patavinus (Classical Latin: [ˈtɪ.tʊs ˈliː.wi.ʊs]; 64 or 59 BC – AD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Livy
Livy
/ˈlɪvi/ in English language
English language
sources – was a Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome
Rome
and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri (Books from the Foundation of the City) – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome
Rome
before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus
Augustus
in Livy's own lifetime
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Epitaph
An epitaph (from Greek ἐπιτάφιος epitaphios "a funeral oration" from ἐπί epi "at, over" and τάφος taphos "tomb")[1][2] is a short text honoring a deceased person. Strictly speaking, it refers to text that is inscribed on a tombstone or plaque, but it may also be used in a figurative sense. Some epitaphs are specified by the person themselves before their death, while others are chosen by those responsible for the burial. An epitaph may be written in prose or in poem verse; poets have been known to compose their own epitaphs prior to their death, as did William Shakespeare.[3] Most epitaphs are brief records of the family, and perhaps the career, of the deceased, often with a common expression of love or respect—for example, "beloved father of ..."—but others are more ambitious
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