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Etiquette In Indonesia
Etiquette
Etiquette
(/ˈɛtɪˌkɛt/ or /ˈɛtɪkɪt/, French: [e.ti.kɛt]) is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group. The French word étiquette, literally signifying a tag or label, was used in a modern sense in English around 1750.[2] Etiquette
Etiquette
has changed and evolved over the years.Contents1 History1.1 Politeness2 Manners2.1 Sociology perspectives 2.2 Anthropology perspectives 2.3 Evolutionary biology perspectives 2.4 Types 2.5 Books 2.6 Western office and business3 Cultural differences 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit]Louis XIV's court at the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
developed an elaborate form of etiquette.In the 3rd millennium BC, Ptahhotep wrote The Maxims of Ptahhotep
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Etiquette (other)
Etiquette
Etiquette
refers to shared cultural norms governing individual behavior. Etiquette
Etiquette
may also refer to:Labels applied to postal items, such as airmail etiquettes Etiquette, one of the Bab Ballads
Bab Ballads
by W. S
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The Civilizing Process
The Civilizing Process is a book by German sociologist Norbert Elias. It is an influential work in sociology and Elias' most important work. It was first published in two volumes in 1939 in German as Über den Prozeß der Zivilisation. Because of World War II it was virtually ignored, but gained popularity when it was republished in 1969 and translated into English. Covering European history from roughly 800 AD to 1900 AD, it is the first formal analysis and theory of civilization. The Civilizing Process is today regarded as the founding work of Figurational Sociology
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Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl Of Shaftesbury
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury
Earl of Shaftesbury
Bt (26 February 1671 – 16 February 1713) was an English politician, philosopher and writer.Contents1 Biography 2 Assessment 3 Other works 4 Writing style 5 Philosophy 6 Reception 7 Styles of address 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksBiography[edit] He was born at Exeter House in London, the grandson of Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury
Earl of Shaftesbury
and son of Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 2nd Earl of Shaftesbury. His mother was Lady Dorothy Manners, daughter of John Manners, 8th Earl of Rutland. According to a story told by the third earl, the marriage was negotiated by John Locke, who was a trusted friend of the first earl
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The Spectator (1711)
The Spectator
The Spectator
was a daily publication founded by Joseph Addison
Joseph Addison
and Richard Steele
Richard Steele
in England, lasting from 1711 to 1712. Each "paper", or "number", was approximately 2,500 words long, and the original run consisted of 555 numbers, beginning on 1 March 1711.[1] These were collected into seven volumes. The paper was revived without the involvement of Steele in 1714, appearing thrice weekly for six months, and these papers when collected formed the eighth volume. Eustace Budgell, a cousin of Addison's, and the poet John Hughes also contributed to the publication.Contents1 Aims 2 Readership 3 Works3.1 Inkle and Yarico4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography7.1 Editions 7.2 Further reading8 External linksAims[edit] In Number 10, Mr
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Joseph Addison
Joseph Addison
Joseph Addison
(1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719) was an English essayist, poet, playwright, and politician. He was the eldest son of The Reverend Lancelot Addison. His name is usually remembered alongside that of his long-standing friend, Richard Steele, with whom he founded The Spectator
The Spectator
magazine.Contents1 Life and writing1.1 Background 1.2 Political career 1.3 Magazine founder 1.4 Plays1.4.1 Cato1.5 Hymn2 Marriage and death 3 Contribution 4 Timeline 5 Albin Schram letters 6 Analysis 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksLife and writing[edit] Background[edit] Addison was born in Millstone, Wiltshire, but soon after his birth his father, Lancelot Addison, was appointed Dean of Lichfield
Dean of Lichfield
and the Addison family moved into the cathedral close
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Richard Steele
Sir Richard Steele
Richard Steele
(bap. 12 March 1672 – 1 September 1729) was an Irish writer, playwright, and politician, remembered as co-founder, with his friend Joseph Addison, of the magazine The Tatler.Contents1 Early life 2 In politics 3 Later life 4 Works 5 Publications 6 Family 7 In literature 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Steele was born in Dublin, Ireland
Ireland
in March 1672 to Richard Steele, an attorney, and Elinor Symes (née Sheyles); his sister Katherine was born the previous year. Steele was largely raised by his uncle and aunt, Henry Gascoigne and Lady Katherine Mildmay.[1] A member of the Protestant gentry, he was educated at Charterhouse School, where he first met Addison
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Tatler (1709)
The Tatler
Tatler
was a British literary and society journal begun by Richard Steele in 1709 and published for two years. It represented a new approach to journalism, featuring cultivated essays on contemporary manners, and established the pattern that would be copied in such British classics as Addison and Steele's Spectator, Samuel Johnson's Rambler and Idler, and Goldsmith's Citizen of the World, and influence essayists as late as Charles Lamb
Charles Lamb
and William Hazlitt
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Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl Of Chesterfield
Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield, KG, PC (22 September 1694 – 24 March 1773) was a British statesman, diplomat, man of letters, and an acclaimed wit of his time. He was born in London to Philip Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Chesterfield, and Lady Elizabeth Savile, and known as Lord Stanhope until the death of his father, in 1726.[1] Following the death of his mother in 1708, Stanhope was raised mainly by his grandmother, the Marchioness
Marchioness
of Halifax.[2] Educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, he left just over a year into his studies, after focusing on languages and oration
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William Hoare
William Hoare
William Hoare
of Bath RA (c. 1707 – 12 December 1792) was an English portraitist, painter and printmaker. From c. 1740 to 1759, he was the leading oil portraitist at Bath, Somerset, until the arrival in the town of Thomas Gainsborough. Noted for his pastels, he was a foundation member of the Royal Academy.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Notes 3 Bibliography 4 External linksLife[edit] Born near Eye, Suffolk, Hoare received a gentleman’s education in Faringdon. He showed an aptitude for drawing and was sent to London to study under Giuseppe Grisoni, who had left Florence
Florence
for London in 1715. When Grisoni returned to Italy
Italy
in 1728, Hoare went with him, travelling to Rome and continuing his studies under the direction of Francesco Imperiali
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Eugenia Stanhope
Philip Stanhope (2 May 1732 – 16 November 1768) was the illegitimate son of Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield
Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield
to whom the famous Letters to His Son were addressed. His mother was a French governess, Madelina Elizabeth du Bouchet. Career[edit] Despite his father taking great pains to educate him, and also using his influence to obtain various diplomatic appointments for what he hoped would be a high-flying career, Stanhope was treated with disdain by many, because of his illegitimacy. He was a Member of Parliament for Liskeard and St Germans. The government in 1764 wishing to get possession of his seat, asked him to vacate it, and after some negotiation he agreed, on receiving payment of £ 1,000, which was half the amount he (or his father) had paid for it
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Victorian Era
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era
Victorian era
was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque
Belle Époque
era of continental Europe. Defined according to sensibilities and political concerns, the period is sometimes considered to begin with the passage of the Reform Act 1832
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Cutlery
Cutlery
Cutlery
includes any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in the Western world. A person who makes or sells cutlery is called a cutler. The city of Sheffield
Sheffield
in England has been famous for the production of cutlery since the 17th century and a train – the Master Cutler – running from Sheffield
Sheffield
to London
London
was named after the industry.[1] Cutlery
Cutlery
is more usually known as silverware or flatware in the United States, where cutlery usually means knives and related cutting instruments. Although the term silverware is used irrespective of the material composition of the utensils, the term tableware has come into use to avoid the implication that they are made of silver. The major items of cutlery in the Western world
Western world
are the knife, fork and spoon
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Norbert Elias
Norbert Elias
Norbert Elias
(German: [eˈliːas]; 22 June 1897 – 1 August 1990) was a German sociologist of Jewish descent, who later became a British citizen. He is especially famous for his theory of civilizing (and decivilizing) processes.Contents1 Biography 2 Work 3 The Collected Works of Norbert Elias
Norbert Elias
in English 4 Select bibliography of earlier editions4.1 Articles5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksBiography[edit] Elias was born on 22 June 1897 in Breslau (today: Wrocław) in Prussia's Silesia Province
Silesia Province
to Hermann and Sophie Gallewski. His father was a businessman in the textile industry. After passing the abitur in 1915 he volunteered for the German army in World War I
World War I
and was employed as a telegrapher, first at the Eastern front, then at the Western front
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Bourgeoisie
The bourgeoisie (/ˌbʊərʒwɑːˈziː/; French: [buʁʒwazi]) is a polysemous French term that can mean:originally and generally, "those who live in the borough", that is to say, the people of the city (including merchants and craftsmen), as opposed to those of rural areas; in this sense, the bourgeoisie began to grow in Europe from the 11th century and particularly during the Renaissance of the 12th century, with the first developments of rural exodus and urbanization. a legally defined class of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the end of the Ancien Régime (Old Regime) in France, that of inhabitants having the rights of citizenship and political rights in a city (comparable to the German term Bürgertum and Bürger; see also "Burgher"). This bourgeoisie destroyed aristocratic privilege and established civic equality after the French monarchy collapsed
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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