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Ethnohistory
Ethnohistory is the study of cultures and indigenous peoples' customs by examining historical records as well as other sources of information on their lives and history. It is also the study of the history of various ethnic groups that may or may not still exist. The term is most commonly used in writing about the history of the Americas. Ethnohistory uses both historical and ethnographic data as its foundation. Its historical methods and materials go beyond the standard use of documents and manuscripts
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Ethnoarchaeology
Ethnoarchaeology is the ethnographic study of peoples for archaeological reasons, usually through the study of the material remains of a society (see David & Kramer 2001). Ethnoarchaeology aids archaeologists in reconstructing ancient lifeways by studying the material and non-material traditions of modern societies. Ethnoarchaeology also aids in the understanding of the way an object was made and the purpose of what it is being used for.[1] Archaeologists can then infer that ancient societies used the same techniques as their modern counterparts given a similar set of environmental circumstances. One good example of ethnoarchaeology is that of Brian Hayden (1987), whose team examined the manufacture of Mesoamerican
Mesoamerican
quern-stones, providing valuable insights into the manufacture of prehistoric quern-stones
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Battlefield Archaeology
Battlefield archaeology is a sub-discipline of archaeology that began in North America with Dr. Douglas D. Scott's, National Park Service, metal detecting of Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument in 1983. It is not considered distinct from Military archaeology or Recceology
Recceology
(i.e., the recovery of surface finds and non-invasive site surveying). Battlefield archaeology also refers to the specific study of a particular archaeological horizon in which a military action occurred. This may include both 'bounded' battlefields where troop dispositions, numbers and the order of battle are known from textual records, and also from undocumented evidence of conflict. The discipline is distinct from military history in that it seeks to answer different questions, including the experiences of ordinary soldiers in wider political frameworks
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Anthrozoology
Anthrozoology
Anthrozoology
(also known as human–non-human-animal studies, or HAS) is the subset of ethnobiology that deals with interactions between humans and other animals. It is an interdisciplinary field that overlaps with other disciplines including anthropology, ethnology, medicine, psychology, veterinary medicine and zoology
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Forensic Anthropology
Forensic anthropology
Forensic anthropology
is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy,[1] in a legal setting. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable, as might happen in a plane crash. Forensic anthropologists are also instrumental to the investigation and documentation of genocide and mass graves. Along with forensic pathologists, forensic dentists, and homicide investigators, forensic anthropologists commonly testify in court as expert witnesses. Using physical markers present on a skeleton, a forensic anthropologist can potentially determine a victim's age, sex, stature, and ancestry
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Biocultural Anthropology
Biocultural anthropology can be defined in numerous ways. It is the scientific exploration of the relationships between human biology and culture.[1] "Instead of looking for the biology underlying biological roots of human behavior, biocultural anthropology attempts to understand how culture affects our biological capacities and limitations."[1]Contents1 History 2 Key research 3 Contemporary biocultural anthropology 4 Controversy 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Physical anthropologists throughout the first half of the 20th century viewed this relationship from a racial perspective; that is, from the assumption that typological human biological differences lead to cultural differences.[2] After World War II
World War II
the emphasis began to shift toward an effort to explore the role culture plays in shaping human biology
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Cyborg Anthropology
Cyborg
Cyborg
anthropology is a discipline that studies the interaction between humanity and technology from an anthropological perspective. The discipline is relatively new, but offers novel insights on new technological advances and their effect on culture and society.Contents1 History 2 Methodology2.1 'Cyborg' Origins and Meaning 2.2 Digital vs
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Environmental Archaeology
Environmental archaeology is a sub-field of archaeology and is the science of reconstructing the relationships between past societies and the environments they lived in.[1][2] The field represents an archaeological-palaeoecological approach to studying the palaeoenvironment through the methods of human palaeoecology. Reconstructing past environments and past peoples' relationships and interactions with the landscapes they inhabited provides archaeologists with insights into the origin and evolution of anthropogenic environments, and prehistoric adaptations and economic practices.[3] Environmen
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Bioarchaeology
The term bioarchaeology was first coined by British archaeologist Grahame Clark
Grahame Clark
in 1972 as a reference to zooarchaeology, or the study of animal bones from archaeological sites. Redefined in 1977 by Jane Buikstra, bioarchaeology in the US now refers to the scientific study of human remains from archaeological sites, a discipline known in other countries as osteoarchaeology or palaeo-osteology. In England and other European countries, the term 'bioarchaeology' is borrowed to cover all biological remains from sites. Bioarchaeology was largely born from the practices of New Archaeology, which developed in the US in the 1970s as a reaction to a mainly cultural-historical approach to understanding the past. Proponents of New Archaeology
New Archaeology
advocated using processual methods to test hypotheses about the interaction between culture and biology, or a biocultural approach
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Biblical Archaeology
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t e Biblical archaeology
Biblical archaeology
involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible, be they from the Old Testament
Old Testament
(Tanakh) or from the New Testament, as well as the history and cosmogony of the Judeo-Christian religions. The principal location of interest is what is known in the relevant religions as the Holy Land, which from a western perspective is also called the Middle East
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Aviation Archaeology
Aviation archaeology
Aviation archaeology
is a recognized sub-discipline within archaeology and underwater archaeology as a whole.[1] It is an activity practiced by both enthusiasts and academics in pursuit of finding, documenting, recovering, and preserving sites important in aviation history. For the most part, these sites are aircraft wrecks and crash sites, but also include structures and facilities related to aviation
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Zooarchaeology
Zooarchaeology
Zooarchaeology
(or archaeozoology) is the study of faunal remains.[1] Faunal remains are the items left behind when an animal dies.[1] It includes: bones, shells, hair, chitin, scales, hides, proteins and DNA.[1] Of these items, bones and shells are the ones that occur most frequently at archaeological sites where faunal remains can be found.[1] Most of the time, most of the faunal remains do not survive.[1] They often decompose or break because of various circumstances.[1] This can cause diffi
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Aerial Archaeology
Aerial archaeology
Aerial archaeology
is the study of archaeological remains by examining them from altitude.Contents1 Details 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDetails[edit] The advantages of gaining a good aerial view of the ground had been long appreciated by archaeologists as a high viewpoint permits a better appreciation of fine details and their relationships within the wider site context. Early investigators attempted to gain birdseye views of sites using hot air balloons, scaffolds or cameras attached to kites. Following the invention of the aeroplane and the military importance placed on aerial photography during the First and Second World Wars, archaeologists were able to more effectively use the technique to discover and record archaeological sites. Photographs may be taken either vertically, that is from directly overhead, or obliquely, meaning that they are taken at an angle
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Evolutionary Anthropology
Evolutionary anthropology
Evolutionary anthropology
is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates. Evolutionary anthropology is based in natural science and social science
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Molecular Anthropology
Molecular
Molecular
anthropology is a field of anthropology in which molecular analysis is used to determine evolutionary links between ancient and modern human populations, as well as between contemporary species. Generally, comparisons are made between sequences, either DNA or protein sequences; however, early studies used comparative serology. By examining DNA sequences
DNA sequences
in different populations, scientists can determine the closeness of relationships between populations (or within populations). Certain similarities in genetic makeup let molecular anthropologists determine whether or not different groups of people belong to the same haplogroup, and thus if they share a common geographical origin
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Primatology
Primatology
Primatology
is the scientific study of primates.[1] It is a diverse discipline at the boundary between mammalogy and anthropology, and researchers can be found in academic departments of anatomy, anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, veterinary sciences and zoology, as well as in animal sanctuaries, biomedical research facilities, museums and zoos.[2] Primatologists study both living and extinct primates in their natural habitats and in laboratories by conducting field studies and experiments in order to understand aspects of their evolution and behaviour.Contents1 Sub-disci
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