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Ethnic Enclave
In sociology, an ethnic enclave is a geographic area with high ethnic concentration, characteristic cultural identity, and economic activity.[8] The term is usually used to refer to either a residential area or a workspace with a high concentration of ethnic firms.[9] Their success and growth depends on self-sufficiency, and is coupled with economic prosperity. The theory of social capital and the formation of migrant networks creates the social foundation for ethnic enclaves. Douglas Massey describes how migrant networks provide new immigrants with social capital that can be transferred to other tangible forms.[10] As immigrants tend to cluster in close geographic spaces, they develop migrant networks—systems of interpersonal relations through which participants can exchange valuable resources and knowledge. Immigrants can capitalize on social interactions by transforming information into tangible resources, and thereby lower costs of migration
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New York City
Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island)Historic colonies New Netherland Province of New YorkSettled 1624Consolidated 1898Named for James, Duke of YorkGovernment[2] • Type Mayor–Council • Body New York City
New York City
Council • Mayor Bill de Blasio
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Labor Laws
Labour law
Labour law
(also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government. Collective labour law relates to the tripartite relationship between employee, employer and union. Individual labour law concerns employees' rights at work and through the contract for work. Employment
Employment
standards are social norms (in some cases also technical standards) for the minimum socially acceptable conditions under which employees or contractors are allowed to work
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Globalization
Globalization
Globalization
or globalisation is the trend of increasing interaction between people on a worldwide scale due to advances in transportation and communication technology, nominally beginning with the steamship and the telegraph in the early to mid-1800s. With increased interactions between nation-states and individuals came the growth of international trade, ideas, and culture
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Social Integration
Social integration
Social integration
is the process during which newcomers or minorities are incorporated into the social structure of the host society.[1] Social integration, together with economic integration and identity integration, are three main dimensions of a newcomers' experiences in the society that is receiving them.[1] A higher extent of social integration contributes to a closer social distance between groups and more consistent values and practices. In a broader view, social integration is a dynamic and structured process in which all members participate in dialogue to achieve and maintain peaceful social relations. Social integration
Social integration
does not mean forced assimilation
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Sociology Of Immigration
This article needs attention from an expert in Sociology. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. WikiProject Sociology
Sociology
may be able to help recruit an expert. (September 2009)The sociology of immigration involves the sociological analysis of immigration, particularly with respect to race and ethnicity, social structure, and political policy. Important concepts include assimilation, enculturation, marginalization, multiculturalism, postcolonialism, transnationalism and social cohesion.Contents1 History1.1 Twentieth century 1.2 Twenty-first century 1.3 Generational change2 Three sociological perspectives2.1 Symbolic interactionism 2.2 Social conflict 2.3 Structural functionalism3 Transnationalism 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Twentieth century[edit] Global immigration during the twentieth century was particularly rapid during the first half of the century
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Secondary Sector Of The Economy
The secondary sector include industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction. This sector generally takes the output of the primary sector and manufactures finished goods or where they are suitable for used by other businesses, for export, or sale to domestic consumers. This sector is often divided into light industry and heavy industry. Many of these industries consume large quantities of energy and require factories and machinery to convert the raw materials into goods and products. They also produce waste materials and waste heat that may cause environmental problems or cause pollution. The secondary sector supports both the primary and tertiary sector. Some economists contrast wealth-producing sectors in an economy such as manufacturing with the service sector which tends to be wealth-consuming.[1] Examples of service may include retail, insurance, and government
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Informal Economy
The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy[1][2] is the part of an economy that is neither taxed, nor monitored by any form of government. Unlike the formal economy, activities of the informal economy are not included in the gross national product (GNP) and gross domestic product (GDP) of a country.[3] The informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour. Other concepts which can be characterized as informal sector can include the black market (shadow economy, underground economy), agorism, and System D. Associated idioms include "under the table", "off the books" and "working for cash". Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries it is often stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable
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Discrimination
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong rather than on individual attributes
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Hostility
Hostility
Hostility
is seen as form of emotionally charged aggressive behavior. In everyday speech it is more commonly used as a synonym for anger and aggression. It appears in several psychological theories
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Labor Exploitation
Unfree labour
Unfree labour
is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion,[1] or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families. Unfree labour
Unfree labour
includes all forms of slavery, and related institutions (e.g. debt slavery, serfdom, corvée and labour camps)
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Unintended Consequences
In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action. The term was popularised in the twentieth century by American sociologist Robert K. Merton.[1] Unintended consequences
Unintended consequences
can be grouped into three types:Unexpected benefit: A positive unexpected benefit (also referred to as luck, serendipity or a windfall). Unexpected drawback: An unexpected detriment occurring in addition to the desired effect of the policy (e.g., while irrigation schemes provide people with water for agriculture, they can increase waterborne diseases that have devastating health effects, such as schistosomiasis). Perverse result: A perverse effect contrary to what was originally intended (when an intended solution makes a problem worse)
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Housing Discrimination
Housing discrimination is discrimination based on protected class status, variously including race, gender, religion, ethnicity, age, national origin, sexual orientation and gender identity, marital status, or veteran status, in the realm of housing and real estate. Four types of housing discrimination are rental discrimination, sales discrimination, lending and mortgage discrimination and homeowners insurance.Contents1 United States 2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksUnited States[edit] Main article: Housing discrimination (United States) In the United
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Immigration Policy
An immigration policy is any policy of a state that deals with the transit of people across its borders into the country, but especially those that intend to work and stay in the country. Immigration policies can range from allowing no migration at all to allowing most types of migration, such as free immigration. Often, racial or religious bias is tied to immigration policy (for example, a country might only allow commonwealth citizens admission).[vague][citation needed] Ethnic relations policy within a country can usually be broadly categorized as either 'assimilationist' or 'multiculturalist'.[citation needed] Tax, tariff and trade
Tax, tariff and trade
rules that determine what goods immigrants may bring with them, what services they may perform while temporarily in the country, and who is allowed to remain like the European Union
European Union
has few immigration restrictions within it
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Retail Industry
Retail
Retail
is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain. The term "retailer" is typically applied where a service provider fills the small orders of a large number of individuals, who are end-users, rather than large orders of a small number of wholesale, corporate or government clientele. Shopping
Shopping
generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain final goods, including necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it takes place as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often involves window shopping and browsing: it does not always result in a purchase. Retail
Retail
markets and shops have a very ancient history, dating back to antiquity
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Immigration To The United States
Immigration
Immigration
to the United States
United States
is the international movement of individuals who are not natives or do not possess citizenship in order to settle, reside, study or to take-up employment in the country. It has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of the United States. In absolute numbers, the United States
United States
has a larger immigrant population than any other country, with 47 million immigrants as of 2015.[1] This represents 19.1% of the 244 million international migrants worldwide, and 14.4% of the U.S. population. Many other countries have significantly higher percentages, such as e.g. Switzerland
Switzerland
with 24.9% immigrants
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