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Ethics
Ethics
Ethics
or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.[1] The term ethics derives from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἠθικός (ethikos), from ἦθος (ethos), meaning 'habit, custom'. The branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics, each concerned with values.[2] Ethics
Ethics
seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime
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List Of Epistemologists
This is a list of epistemologists, that is, people who theorize about the nature of knowledge, belief formation and the nature of justification. See also: Index of epistemology articlesWilliam Alston Elizabeth Anscombe Thomas Aquinas Aristotle Robert Audi A. J. Ayer Francis Bacon George Berkeley Harry Binswanger David Bohm Laurence Bonjour Berit Brogaard Mario Bunge Judith Butler David Chalmers Noam Chomsky Jonathan Dancy Simone de Beauvoir René Descartes Fred Dretske Nader El-Bizri Margaret Elizabeth Egan Catherine Elgin Heinz von Foerster Edmund Gettier Ernst von Glasersfeld Alvin Goldman Emma Goldman Nelson Goodman John Greco Paul Grice Susan Haack Donna Haraway Sandra Harding Gilbert Harman Sally Haslanger Friedrich A. Hayek G.W.F. Hegel John Hawthorne Thomas Hobbes David Hume James VI and I Carrie Ichikawa Jenkins Immanuel Kant Søren Kierkegaard Peter D
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List Of Aestheticians
This is a list of aestheticians (or aestheticists), philosophers of art, and aesthetes. That is, people who theorize about the nature of art and beauty. See also: Index of aesthetics articlesContentsTop A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZExternal linksA[edit]Virgil Aldrich Anandavardhana Sri Aurobindo John Anderson Yves Marie André St. Thomas Aquinas Aristotle
Aristotle
(see Poetics and Rhetoric) Rudolf Arnheim Mazen Asfour Georg Anton Friedrich Ast St. Augustine of Hippo Jody Azzouni AbhinavaguptaB[edit]Victor Basch Yusuf Balasagun Roland Barthes Georges Bataille Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten Monroe Beardsley Vissarion Belinsky Clive Bell Walter Benjamin Arnold Berleant George Birkhoff Max Black Maurice Blanchot Harold Bloom Georg Brandes Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin Ferruccio BusoniC[edit]John Cage Cesare Brandi Stanley Cavell R. G. Collingwood Victor Cousin Benedetto Croce Gregory CurrieD[edit]Arthur Danto William C
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Index Of Sociopolitical Thinkers
The following is an index of sociopolitical thinkers listed by the first name. Alphabetical list[edit]Abraham Joshua Heschel Abul Kalam Azad Adam Müller Adolf Hitler Adrian Johnston Alan Carter Alan Ryan Alastair Norcross Alexander of Aphrodisias Alexis de Tocqueville Alfred Rosenberg Al-Ghazali Ali Shariati Alon Ben-Meir Andrei Marga António Castanheira Neves Antonio Negri Aristotle Armin Mohler Arthur Linton Corbin Arthur Moeller van den Bruck Auberon Herbert Averroes Axel Honneth Ayn Rand Benjamin Tucker Bertrand de Jouvenel Bertrand Russell B. R. Ambedkar Boris Furlan Bruce Lee Bruno Leoni Bryan Caplan Carl Joachim Friedrich Carl Schmitt Carlo Lottieri Chanakya Charles C. Ragin Charles Taylor C. Wright Mills Cheng Hao Cheng Yi Cicero Claude Lefort Claude Lévi-Strauss Claudio Canaparo Confucius Constantin Rădulescu-Motru Cornel West Cornelius Castoriadis Costas Douzinas Dana Ward Daniel Guérin David D
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List Of Metaphysicians
This is a list of metaphysicians, philosophers who specialize in metaphysics. See also Lists of philosophers. See also: Index of metaphysics articles Metaphysicians born before 1900[edit]Pythagoras Democritus Heraclitus Anaximander Plotinus Lucretius Proclus Lycaeus Zeno of Elea Parmenides Protagoras Plato Aristotle Thomas Aquinas Duns Scotus Galileo Galilei René Descartes Anne Conway (philosopher) Baruch Spinoza Nicolas Malebranche John McTaggart Gottfried Leibniz George Berkeley Immanuel Kant Georg W. F. Hegel Arthur Schopenhauer Austin Osman Spare Nicolai Hartmann Martin Heidegger Gottlob Frege G. E. Moore Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Bertrand Russell Alfred North Whitehead Henri Bergson Ludwig Wittgenstein George Holmes HowisonMetaphysicians born after 1900[edit]Marilyn McCord Adams Robert Merrihew Adams William Alston David Malet Armstrong Alain Badiou Lynne Rudder Baker Paul Benacerraf C. D
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List Of Logicians
A logician is a person whose topic of scholarly study is logic. Some famous logicians are listed below in English alphabetical transliteration order (by surname).Contents: Top 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZA[edit] Peter Abelard
Peter Abelard
(France, 1079–1142) Wilhelm Ackermann
Wilhelm Ackermann
(Germany, 1896–1962) Sergei Adian (Russia/Soviet Union/Armenia, born 1931) Rodolphus Agricola
Rodolphus Agricola
(Germany, 1443/1444–1485) Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz
Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz
(Poland, 1890–1963) Alcuin
Alcuin
(England/France, c. 735-804) Alan Ross Anderson (USA, 1924–1972) Peter B
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Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha[note 3] (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama,[note 4] Shakyamuni Buddha,[4][note 5] or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage,[4] on whose teachings Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded.[5] He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE.[6][note 6] Gautama taught a Middle Way
Middle Way
between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement[7] common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India
India
such as Magadha
Magadha
and Kosala.[6][8] Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism
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African Philosophy
African philosophy is philosophy produced by African people, philosophy that presents African worldviews, or philosophy that uses distinct African philosophical methods.[1] African philosophers may be found in the various academic fields of philosophy, such as metaphysics, epistemology, moral philosophy, and political philosophy.Contents1 Definition 2 Types 3 Pre-modern3.1 North Africa3.1.1 Christian 3.1.2 Islamic3.2 West Africa3.2.1 Islamic3.3 Horn of Africa 3.4 Southern Africa 3.5 Central Africa 3.6 African Diaspora4 Modern4.1 Ethnophilosophy and philosophical sagacity 4.2 Professional philosophy 4.3 Nationalist and ideological philosophy
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Platonism
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato
Plato
or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it. In narrower usage, platonism, rendered as a common noun, refers to the philosophy that affirms the existence of abstract objects, which are asserted to "exist" in a "third realm" distinct both from the sensible external world and from the internal world of consciousness, and is the opposite of nominalism.[1] Lower case "platonists" need not accept any of the doctrines of Plato.[1] In a narrower sense, the term might indicate the doctrine of Platonic realism. The central concept of Platonism, a distinction essential to the Theory of Forms, is the distinction between the reality which is perceptible but unintelligible, and the reality which is imperceptible but intelligible
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Philomath
A philomath (/ˈfɪləmæθ/;[1] from Greek φίλος philos ("beloved", "loving", as in philosophy or philanthropy) and μανθάνειν, μαθ- manthanein, math- ("to learn", as in polymath) is a lover of learning and studying. Philomathes, a "lover of learning", has been contrasted to philalethes, a "lover of truth".[2] Philomathy is similar to, but distinguished from, philosophy in that -soph, the latter suffix, specifies "wisdom" or "knowledge", rather than the process of acquisition thereof
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Averroes
Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
(Arabic: ابن رشد‎; full name Arabic: أبو الوليد محمد ابن احمد ابن رشد‎, translit. ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rushd; 14 April 1126 – 10 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes (/əˈvɛroʊˌiːz/), was a medieval Andalusian Arab
Arab
polymath. He wrote on logic, Aristotelian and Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, the Maliki
Maliki
school of Islamic jurisprudence, psychology, political theory, the theory of Andalusian classical music, geography, mathematics, as well as the medieval sciences of medicine, astronomy, physics, and celestial mechanics. Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
was born in Córdoba, Al Andalus (present-day Spain), and died at Marrakesh
Marrakesh
in present-day Morocco
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Philosopher
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.[1] The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλόσοφος (philosophos) meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(6th century BC).[2] In the classical sense, a philosopher was someone who lived according to a certain way of life, focusing on resolving existential questions about the human condition, and not someone who discourses upon theories or comments upon authors.[3] Typically, these particular brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers. A philosopher is one who challenges what is thought to be common sense, doesn’t know when to stop asking questions, and reexamines the old ways of thought
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Modern Philosophy
Modern philosophy
Modern philosophy
is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity. It is not a specific doctrine or school (and thus should not be confused with Modernism), although there are certain assumptions common to much of it, which helps to distinguish it from earlier philosophy.[1]History of Western philosophyWestern philosophyBy eraPre-Socratic Ancient Medieval Renaissance Modern ContemporaryBy century16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21stSee alsoReligious philosophyBuddhist Christian Hindu Islamic Jewish SikhEastern philosophyChinese Indian Iranian Japanese KoreanWestern culture Western worldv t eThe 17th and early 20th centuries roughly mark the beginning and the end of modern philosophy. How much of the Renaissance
Renaissance
should be included is a matter for dispute; likewise modernity may or may not have ended in the twentieth century and been replaced by postmodernity
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Chinese Philosophy
Vedic philosophyAgastya Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Vashistha YajnavalkyaMimamsaJaiminiVedantaAdvaitaBadarayana Gaudapada Adi ShankaraDvaitaMadhvacharyaSri VaishnavismRamanujaNeo-VedantaVivekananda AurobindoSamkhyaKapilaYogaPatanjaliNyayaGotamaNavya-NyāyaGangesha UpadhyayaVaisheshikaKanadaNāstika (heterodox)Ājīvika Charvaka Kashmir ShaivismAbhinavaguptaPratyabhijna TantraTamilValluvam ValluvarOtherChanakyaGeneral topicsAhimsa Atomism AtmanĀtman (Hinduism) Ātman (Buddhism) Ātman (Jainism)Artha Anekantavada Brahman Dharma Indian logic Karma Kama Maya Metta Moksha Nondualism Samadhi Pramana YogaJainismHaribhadra UmaswatiBuddhismBuddhaTraditionsMadhyamikaNagarjunaYogacaraVasubandhu Dharmakirti
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Medieval Philosophy
Medieval
Medieval
philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century A.D. to the Renaissance
Renaissance
in the 16th century
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