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Ethical Egoism
Ethical egoism is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest. It differs from psychological egoism, which claims that people can only act in their self-interest. Ethical egoism also differs from rational egoism, which holds that it is rational to act in one's self-interest.[1] Ethical egoism holds, therefore, that actions whose consequences will benefit the doer can be considered ethical in this sense. Ethical egoism contrasts with ethical altruism, which holds that moral agents have an obligation to help others. Egoism and altruism both contrast with ethical utilitarianism, which holds that a moral agent should treat one's self (also known as the subject) with no higher regard than one has for others (as egoism does, by elevating self-interests and "the self" to a status not granted to others)
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Michel Onfray
Michel Onfray
Michel Onfray
(French: [miʃɛl ɔ̃fʁɛ]; born 1 January 1959) is a contemporary French writer and philosopher who promotes hedonism, atheism,[2] and anarchism.[3] He is a highly prolific author on philosophy, having written more than 100 books.[4][5] He has gained notoriety for writing such works as Traité d'athéologie: Physique de la métaphysique (translated into English as
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Karl Hess
Karl Hess
Karl Hess
(May 25, 1923 – April 22, 1994) was an American speechwriter and author. He was also a political philosopher, editor, welder, motorcycle racer, tax resister, atheist, and libertarian activist
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Aristippus
Aristippus of Cyrene
Aristippus of Cyrene
(/ˌærəˈstɪpəs/; Greek: Ἀρίστιππος ὁ Κυρηναῖος; c. 435 – c. 356 BCE) was the founder of the Cyrenaic school
Cyrenaic school
of Philosophy.[1] He was a pupil of Socrates, but adopted a very different philosophical outlook, teaching that the goal of life was to seek pleasure by adapting circumstances to oneself and by maintaining proper control over both adversity and prosperity
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Aristotle
Aristotle
Aristotle
(/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/;[3] Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; 384–322 BC)[n 1] was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece. Along with Plato, Aristotle
Aristotle
is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", which inherited almost its entire lexicon from his teachings, including problems and methods of inquiry, so influencing almost all forms of knowledge. Little is known for certain about his life. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle
Aristotle
was a child, and he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy
Plato's Academy
in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c
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Albert Camus
Albert Camus
Albert Camus
(/kæˈmuː/;[2] French: [albɛʁ kamy] ( listen); 7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist. His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism. He wrote in his essay The Rebel that his whole life was devoted to opposing the philosophy of nihilism while still delving deeply into individual freedom. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
at the age of 43 in 1957, the second youngest recipient in history.[3] Camus did not consider himself to be an existentialist despite usually being classified as a follower of it, even in his lifetime.[4] In a 1945 interview, Camus rejected any ideological associations: "No, I am not an existentialist
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Epicurus
Epicurus
Epicurus
(/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊərəs, ˌɛpɪˈkjɔːrəs/;[2] Greek: Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism. Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain. Much of what is known about Epicurean philosophy derives from later followers and commentators. For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia—peace and freedom from fear—and aponia—the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that the root of all human neurosis was death denial, and the tendency for human beings to assume that death will be horrific and painful, which he claimed causes unnecessary anxiety, selfish self-protective behaviors, and hypocrisy
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William Godwin
William Godwin
William Godwin
(3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist. He is considered one of the first exponents of utilitarianism and the first modern proponent of anarchism.[1] Godwin is most famous for two books that he published within the space of a year: An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, an attack on political institutions, and Things as They Are; or, The Adventures of Caleb Williams, an early mystery novel which attacks aristocratic privilege. Based on the success of both, Godwin featured prominently in the radical circles of London
London
in the 1790s
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Emma Goldman
Emma Goldman
Emma Goldman
(June 27 [O.S. June 15], 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist political activist and writer. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the 20th century. Born in Kovno, Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(now Kaunas, Lithuania) to a Jewish family, Goldman emigrated to the United States in 1885.[2] Attracted to anarchism after the Haymarket affair, Goldman became a writer and a renowned lecturer on anarchist philosophy, women's rights, and social issues, attracting crowds of thousands.[2] She and anarchist writer Alexander Berkman, her lover and lifelong friend, planned to assassinate industrialist and financier Henry Clay Frick
Henry Clay Frick
as an act of propaganda of the deed. Frick survived the attempt on his life in 1892 and Berkman was sentenced to 22 years in prison
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Friedrich Hayek
Friedrich Hayek
Friedrich Hayek
CH FBA (/ˈhaɪək/; German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈaʊ̯ɡʊst ˈhaɪɛk]; 8 May 1899 – 23 March 1992), born in Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
as Friedrich August von Hayek and frequently referred to as F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences
with Gunnar Myrdal
Gunnar Myrdal
for his "pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and ..
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Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(April 13 [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third President of the United States
President of the United States
from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was elected the second Vice President of the United States, serving under John Adams
John Adams
from 1797 to 1801. A proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from Great Britain and form a new nation, he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level. He was a land owner and farmer. Jefferson was primarily of English ancestry, born and educated in colonial Virginia. He graduated from the College of William & Mary and briefly practiced law, at times defending slaves seeking their freedom
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Self-sufficiency
Self-sufficiency (also called self-containment) is the state of not requiring any aid, support, or interaction for survival; it is a type of personal or collective autonomy.[1] On a national scale, a totally self-sufficient economy that does not trade with the outside world is called an autarky. Self-sufficiency is a type of sustainable living in which nothing is consumed other than what is produced by the self-sufficient individuals. Examples of attempts at self-sufficiency in North America include simple living, homesteading, off-the-grid, survivalism, DIY ethic and the back-to-the-land movement. Practices that enable or aid self-sufficiency include autonomous building, permaculture, sustainable agriculture, and renewable energy. The term is also applied to limited forms of self-sufficiency, for example growing one's own food or becoming economically independent of state subsidies
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Laozi
Laozi
Laozi
(UK: /ˈlaʊˈzɪər/;[1] also Lao-Tzu /ˈlaʊˈtsuː/,[1] /ˈlaʊˈdzʌ/[2][3] or Lao-Tze /ˈlaʊˈdzeɪ/;[4] Chinese: 老子; pinyin: Lǎozǐ, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer. He is the reputed author of the Tao
Tao
Te Ching,[5] the founder of philosophical Taoism, and a deity in religious Taoism
Taoism
and traditional Chinese religions. A semi-legendary figure, Laozi
Laozi
was usually portrayed as a 6th-century BC contemporary of Confucius, but most modern historians consider him to have lived during the Warring States period of the 5th or 4th century BC.[6] A central figure in Chinese culture, Laozi
Laozi
is claimed by both the emperors of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
and modern people of the Li surname as a founder of their lineage
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John Locke
John Locke
John Locke
FRS (/lɒk/; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".[1][2][3] Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire
Voltaire
and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries
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Hipparchia Of Maroneia
Hipparchia of Maroneia
Maroneia
(/hɪˈpɑːrkiə/; Greek: Ἱππαρχία ἡ Μαρωνεῖτις; fl. c. 325 BC) was a Cynic philosopher, and wife of Crates of Thebes. She was born in Maroneia, but her family moved to Athens, where Hipparchia came into contact with Crates, the most famous Cynic philosopher in Greece
Greece
at that time. She fell in love with him, and, despite the disapproval of her parents, she married him. She went on to live a life of Cynic poverty on the streets of Athens
Athens
with her husband. Little survives of her own philosophical views, but like most Cynics, her influence lies in the example of her life, choosing a way of life which was usually considered unacceptable for respectable women of the time
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H. L. Mencken
Henry Louis Mencken (September 12, 1880 – January 29, 1956) was an American journalist, satirist, cultural critic and scholar of American English.[1] Known as the "Sage of Baltimore", he is regarded as one of the most influential American writers and prose stylists of the first half of the 20th century. He commented widely on the social scene, literature, music, prominent politicians and contemporary movements. His satirical reporting on the Scopes trial, which he dubbed the "Monkey Trial", also gained him attention. As a scholar, Mencken is known for The American Language, a multi-volume study of how the English language is spoken in the United States
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