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Estuary English
Estuary English
Estuary English
is an English dialect or accent associated with South East England, especially the area along the River Thames
River Thames
and its estuary, centering around London. Phonetician John C. Wells
John C. Wells
proposed a definition of Estuary English
Estuary English
as "Standard English spoken with the accent of the south-east of England" but criticised the notion that the spread of language from London
London
to the southeast was anything new.[1] The name comes from the area around the Thames, particularly its Estuary. Estuary English
Estuary English
can be heard from some people in London, north Surrey,[2] Kent, south Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
and Essex
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Close Front Unrounded Vowel
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.[2] Although in English this sound has additional length (usually being represented as /iː/) and is not normally pronounced as a pure vowel (it is a slight diphthong), some dialects have been reported to pronounce the phoneme as a pure sound.[3] A pure [i] sound is also heard in many other languages, such as French, in words like chic. The close front unrounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the palatal approximant [j]. The two are almost identical featurally
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T Glottalization
In English phonology, t-glottalization or t-glottaling is a sound change in certain English dialects and accents that causes the phoneme /t/ to be pronounced as the glottal stop [ʔ] ( listen) in certain positions. It is never universal, especially in careful speech, and it most often alternates with other allophones of /t/ such as  [t] (help·info), [tʰ], [tⁿ] (before a nasal), [tˡ] (before a lateral), or [ɾ]. As a sound change, it is a subtype of debuccalization. The pronunciation that it results in is called glottalization. Apparently, glottal reinforcement, which is quite common in English, is a stage preceding full replacement of the stop,[1] and indeed, reinforcement and replacement can be in free variation. The earliest mentions of the process are in Scotland
Scotland
during the 19th century, when Henry Sweet
Henry Sweet
commented on the phenomenon
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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Alveolar Stop
In phonetics and phonology, an alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, made with the tongue in contact with the alveolar ridge located just behind the teeth (hence alveolar), held tightly enough to block the passage of air (hence a stop consonant). The most common sounds are the stops [t] and [d], as in English toe and doe, and the voiced nasal [n]. More generally, several kinds are distinguished:[t], voiceless alveolar stop [d], voiced alveolar stop [n], voiced alveolar nasal [n̥], voiceless alveolar nasal [tʼ], alveolar ejective [ɗ ], voiced alveolar implosive [ɗ̥ ] or [tʼ↓] voiceless alveolar implosive (very rare)Note that alveolar and dental stops are not always carefully distinguished. Acoustically, the two types of sounds are similar, and it is rare for a language to have both types. If necessary, an alveolar consonant can be transcribed with the combining equals sign below ⟨◌͇⟩, as with ⟨t͇⟩ for the voiceless alveolar stop
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Voiced Palato-alveolar Affricate
The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
with ⟨d͡ʒ⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʤ⟩), or in broad transcription ⟨ɟ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
representation is dZ. Alternatives commonly used in linguistic works, particularly in older or American literature, are ⟨ǰ⟩, ⟨ǧ⟩, ⟨ǯ⟩, and ⟨dž⟩
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Voiceless Palato-alveolar Affricate
The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨t͡ʃ⟩, ⟨t͜ʃ⟩ or ⟨tʃ⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʧ⟩)
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Dental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral Approximants
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral approximants is ⟨l⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is l. As a sonorant, lateral approximants are nearly always voiced. Voiceless lateral approximants, /l̥/ are common in Sino-Tibetan languages, but uncommon elsewhere. In such cases, voicing typically starts about halfway through the hold of the consonant. No language is known to contrast such a sound with a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ]. In a number of languages, including most varieties of English, the phoneme /l/ becomes velarized in certain contexts, a sound often called "dark l"
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Isle Of Thanet
The Isle of Thanet
Thanet
/ˈθænɪt/ lies at the most easterly point of Kent, England. While in the past it was separated from the mainland by the 600-metre (2,000 ft) Wantsum Channel,[1] it is no longer an island. Archaeological remains testify to the fact that ancient peoples lived here. Today, it is a tourist destination, but it also has a busy agricultural base.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Governance 4 Geography 5 Landmarks 6 Transport 7 Cultural references 8 References 9 BibliographyEtymology[edit] Standard reference works for English place-names (such as Eilert Ekwall's Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names) all state the name "Tanet" is known to be Brythonic in origin
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Close Central Unrounded Vowel
The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ɨ, namely the lower-case letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as barred i
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Intrusive R
Linking R and intrusive R are sandhi or linking phenomena[1] involving the appearance of the rhotic consonant (which normally corresponds to the letter ⟨r⟩) between two consecutive morphemes where it would not normally be pronounced. These phenomena occur in many non-rhotic varieties of English, such as those in most of England
England
and Wales, part of the United States, and all of the Anglophone societies of the southern hemisphere, with the exception of South Africa. These phenomena first appeared in English sometime after the year 1700.[2]Contents1 Non-rhotic varieties 2 Linking R 3 Intrusive R 4 Prevalence 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 Further reading 10 External linksNon-rhotic varieties[edit] Main article: Rhoticity in English By definition, non-rhotic varieties of English only pronounce /r/[3] when it immediately precedes a vowel
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Close Back Rounded Vowel
The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨u⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is u. In most languages, this rounded vowel is pronounced with protruded lips ('endolabial'). However, in a few cases the lips are compressed ('exolabial'). The close back rounded vowel is almost identical featurally to the labio-velar approximant [w]
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Near-close Central Rounded Vowel
The near-close central rounded vowel, or near-high central rounded vowel,[1] is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ⟨ʊ̈⟩ (centralized [ʊ]) and ⟨ʉ̞⟩ (lowered [ʉ]) for a protruded vowel, and ⟨ʏ̈⟩ for a compressed vowel. The symbol ⟨ᵿ⟩, a conflation of ⟨ʊ⟩ and ⟨ʉ⟩, is used as an unofficial extension of the IPA to represent this sound by a number of publications, such as Accents of English by John C. Wells and the Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch,[2] a pronunciation dictionary for German
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Near-close Central Unrounded Vowel
The near-close central unrounded vowel, or near-high central unrounded vowel,[1] is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ⟨ɪ̈⟩ (centralized [ɪ]) and ⟨ɨ̞⟩ (lowered [ɨ]). Other possible transcriptions are ⟨ɪ̠⟩ (retracted [ɪ]) and ⟨ɘ̝⟩ (raised [ɘ]), with the latter symbol being the least common. The X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
equivalents are, respectively, I, 1_o, I_- and @_r. In many British dictionaries, this vowel has been transcribed ⟨ɪ⟩, which captures its height; in the American tradition it is more often ⟨ɨ⟩, which captures its centrality, or ⟨ᵻ⟩,[2] which captures both. ⟨ᵻ⟩ is also used in a number of other publications, such as Accents of English by John C. Wells
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Open Back Rounded Vowel
The open back rounded vowel, or low back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically, it is a near-open or near-low back rounded vowel.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨ɒ⟩. It is called "turned script a", being a rotated version of "script (cursive) a", which is the variant of a that lacks the extra stroke on top of a "printed a". Turned script a ⟨ɒ⟩ has its linear stroke on the left, whereas "script a" ⟨ɑ⟩ (for its unrounded counterpart) has its linear stroke on the right. A well-rounded [ɒ] is rare, but it is found in some varieties of English. In most languages with this vowel, such as English and Persian, the rounding of [ɒ] is slight, and in English at least, it is sulcal or "grooved"
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