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Essentialism
Essentialism
Essentialism
is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.[1] In early Western thought Plato's idealism held that all things have such an "essence," an "Idea" or "Form". Likewise, in Categories Aristotle
Aristotle
proposed that all objects have a substance that, as George Lakoff
George Lakoff
put it "... make the thing what it is, and without which it would be not that kind of thing".[2] The contrary view, non-essentialism, denies the need to posit such an "essence'". Essentialism
Essentialism
has been controversial from its beginning
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Evolution
Evolution
Evolution
is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.[1][2] Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules.[3] Repeated formation of new species (speciation), change within species (anagenesis), and loss of species (extinction) throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth are demonstrated by shared sets of morphological and biochemical traits, including shared DNA sequences.[4] These shared traits are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, and can be used to reconstruct a biological "tree of life" based on evolutionary relationships (phylogenetics), using both existing species and fossils
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Neo-platonism
Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
is a modern term[note 1] for a strand of Platonic philosophy that started with Plotinus
Plotinus
in the third century AD.[1][note 2] Neoplatonic philosophy derives the whole of reality from a single principle, "the One", an idea w
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Demiurge
In the Platonic, Neopythagorean, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the demiurge (/ˈdɛmiˌɜːrdʒ/) is an artisan-like figure responsible for fashioning and maintaining the physical universe. The term was adopted by the Gnostics. Although a fashioner, the demiurge is not necessarily the same as the creator figure in the monotheistic sense, because the demiurge itself and the material from which the demiurge fashions the universe are both considered to be consequences of something else. Depending on the system, they may be considered to be either uncreated and eternal, or considered to be the product of some other entity. The word "demiurge" is an English word from demiurgus, a Latinized form of the Greek δημιουργός or dēmiourgos
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Metaphysics (Aristotle)
[*]: Authenticity disputed strikethrough: Generally agreed to be spuriousv t e Metaphysics
Metaphysics
(Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica[1]) is one of the principal works of Aristotle
Aristotle
and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name. The principal subject is "being qua being," or being insofar as it is being. It examines what can be asserted about any being insofar as it is and not because of any special qualities it has
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Abstract Entity
Abstract Entity
Abstract Entity
is the debut album by Finnish melodic death metal band Kiana. Track listing[edit]No. Title Length1. "Greed" 4:062. "Beloved Addiction" 4:323. "Heartburn" 5:134. "Scars" 3:355. "Son of the Dawn" 3:536. "Psychotic Drama" 4:477. "Brother's Keeper" 4:248. "Reflections" 3:429. "The End" 3:2310. "Worries Turned to Dreads" 3:5211. "Sickness in Me" 3:34References[edit]
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Plato's Allegory Of The Cave
The Allegory of the Cave, or Plato's Cave, was presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work Republic (514a–520a) to compare "the effect of education (παιδεία) and the lack of it on our nature". It is written as a dialogue between Plato's brother Glaucon and his mentor Socrates, narrated by the latter. The allegory is presented after the analogy of the sun (508b–509c) and the analogy of the divided line (509d–511e). All three are characterized in relation to dialectic at the end of Books VII and VIII (531d–534e). Plato has Socrates describe a group of people who have lived chained to the wall of a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The people watch shadows projected on the wall from objects passing in front of a fire behind them, and give names to these shadows. The shadows are the prisoners' reality
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Philosophical Realism
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme
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Nominalism
In metaphysics, nominalism is a philosophical view which denies the existence of universals and abstract objects, but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates.[1] There are at least two main versions of nominalism. One version denies the existence of universals – things that can be instantiated or exemplified by many particular things (e.g., strength, humanity)
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western)
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Science
Science
Science
(from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge")[2][3]:58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[a] Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences which study the material world, the social sciences which study people and societies, and the formal sciences like mathematics
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Timaeus (dialogue)
Timaeus (/taɪˈmiːəs/; Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios, pronounced [tǐmaɪ̯os]) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world and human beings and is followed by the dialogue Critias. Participants in the dialogue include Socrates, Timaeus, Hermocrates, and Critias
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Aesthetics
Aesthetics
Aesthetics
(/ɛsˈθɛtɪks, iːs-/; also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.[1][2] In its more technical epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste.[3] Aesthetics
Aesthetics
studies how artists imagine, create and perform works of art; how people use, enjoy, and criticize art; and what happens in their minds when they look at paintings, listen to music, or read poetry, and understand what they see and hear. It also studies how they feel about art-- why they like some works and not others, and how art can affect their moods, beliefs, and attitude toward life
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Heuristics
A heuristic technique (/hjʊəˈrɪstɪk/; Ancient Greek: εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but sufficient for the immediate goals. Where finding an optimal solution is impossible or impractical, heuristic methods can be used to speed up the process of finding a satisfactory solution. Heuristics can be mental shortcuts that ease the cognitive load of making a decision
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Psychology
Psychology
Psychology
is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest. As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.[1][2] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist
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Gerald B. Folland
Gerald Budge Folland is an American mathematician and a professor of mathematics at the University of Washington. His areas of interest are harmonic analysis (on both Euclidean space
Euclidean space
and Lie groups), differential equations, and mathematical physics
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