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Essential Medicines
ESSENTIAL MEDICINES, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), are the medicines that "satisfy the priority health care needs of the population". These are the medications to which people should have access at all times in sufficient amounts. The prices should be at generally affordable levels. The WHO has published a model list of essential medicines. Each country is encouraged to prepare their own lists taking into consideration local priorities. Over 150 countries have published an official essential medicines list. The essential medicines list enables health authorities, especially in developing countries, to optimize pharmaceutical resources. The WHO List contains a core list and a complementary list. The core list presents a list of minimum medicine needs for a basic health care system, listing the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective medicines for priority conditions
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Sustainable Development Goals
The SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGS), officially known as TRANSFORMING OUR WORLD: THE 2030 AGENDA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT is a set of 17 "Global Goals" with 169 targets between them. Spearheaded by the United Nations
United Nations
through a deliberative process involving its 193 Member States, as well as global civil society, the goals are contained in paragraph 54 United Nations
United Nations
Resolution A/RES/70/1 of 25 September 2015. The Resolution is a broader intergovernmental agreement that acts as the Post 2015 Development Agenda (successor to the Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals
). The SDGs build on the Principles agreed upon under Resolution A/RES/66/288, popularly known as The Future We Want. It is a non-binding document released as a result of Rio+20 Conference held in 2012 in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
, in Brazil
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Antineoplastic
CHEMOTHERAPY (often abbreviated to CHEMO and sometimes CTX or CTX) is a category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents ) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen . Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy). Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer , which is called medical oncology . By common usage, the term chemotherapy has come to connote the use of rather non-specific intracellular poisons , especially related to inhibiting the process of cell division known as mitosis , and generally excludes agents that more selectively block extracellular growth signals (i.e. blockers of signal transduction )
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Antidote
An ANTIDOTE is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning . The term ultimately derives from the Greek (φάρμακον) ἀντίδοτον (pharmakon) antidoton, "(medicine) given as a remedy". Antidotes for anticoagulants are often referred to as REVERSAL AGENTS. The antidotes for some particular toxins are manufactured by injecting the toxin into an animal in small doses and extracting the resulting antibodies from the host animals' blood. This results in an antivenom that can be used to counteract poison produced by certain species of snakes , spiders , and other venomous animals. A number of venoms lack a viable antivenom, and a bite or sting from an animal producing such a toxin often results in death
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Pharmaceutical Formulation
PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION, in pharmaceutics , is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active drug , are combined to produce a final medicinal product . The word formulation is often used in a way that includes dosage form . CONTENTS* 1 Stages and timeline * 1.1 Container closure * 2 Formulation types * 3 Enteral formulations * 3.1 Tablet * 3.2 Capsule * 3.3 Sustained release * 4 Parenteral
Parenteral
formulations * 4.1 Liquid * 4.2 Lyophilized * 5 Topical formulations * 5.1 Cutaneous * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links STAGES AND TIMELINEFormulation studies involve developing a preparation of the drug which is both stable and acceptable to the patient. For orally administered drugs, this usually involves incorporating the drug into a tablet or a capsule
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML
XML
structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez
Entrez
search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Cost Effectiveness
COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS (CEA) is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action. Cost-effectiveness analysis is distinct from cost–benefit analysis , which assigns a monetary value to the measure of effect. Cost-effectiveness analysis is often used in the field of health services, where it may be inappropriate to monetize health effect. Typically the CEA is expressed in terms of a ratio where the denominator is a gain in health from a measure (years of life, premature births averted, sight-years gained) and the numerator is the cost associated with the health gain. The most commonly used outcome measure is quality-adjusted life years (QALY)
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Antimigraine
An ANTIMIGRAINE drug is a medication intended to reduce the effects or intensity of migraine headache . Examples include triptans such as zolmitriptan and ergot alkaloids such as methysergide . Antimigraine
Antimigraine
medications are classified under "N02C" in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System REFERENCES * ^ pharmamotion.com > Serotonin (5-HT): receptors, agonists and antagonists Archived 2009-09-15 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. By Flavio Guzmán, M.D. on 9/08/09 * ^ Morikawa T, Matsuzawa Y, Makita K, Katayama Y (2006). " Antimigraine
Antimigraine
drug, zolmitriptan, inhibits high-voltage activated calcium currents in a population of acutely dissociated rat trigeminal sensory neurons". Molecular Pain . 2 (1): 10. PMC 1434723  . PMID 16549032 . doi :10.1186/1744-8069-2-10
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Health Care
HEALTH CARE or HEALTHCARE is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention , diagnosis , and treatment of disease , illness , injury , and other physical and mental impairments in human beings. Healthcare is delivered by health professionals (providers or practitioners) in allied health professions , physicians , physician associates, dentistry , midwifery , nursing , medicine , optometry , audiology , pharmacy , psychology , and other health professions . It includes the work done in providing primary care , secondary care , and tertiary care , as well as in public health . Access to health care may vary across countries, groups, and individuals, largely influenced by social and economic conditions as well as the health policies in place. Countries and jurisdictions have different policies and plans in relation to the personal and population-based health care goals within their societies
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Cost-effective
COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS (CEA) is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action. Cost-effectiveness analysis is distinct from cost–benefit analysis , which assigns a monetary value to the measure of effect. Cost-effectiveness analysis is often used in the field of health services, where it may be inappropriate to monetize health effect. Typically the CEA is expressed in terms of a ratio where the denominator is a gain in health from a measure (years of life, premature births averted, sight-years gained) and the numerator is the cost associated with the health gain. The most commonly used outcome measure is quality-adjusted life years (QALY)
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Primary Health Care
PRIMARY HEALTHCARE (PHC) refers to "essential health care " that is based on "scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, which make universal health care accessible to all individuals and families in a community. It is through their full participation and at a cost that the community and the country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination". In other words, PHC is an approach to health beyond the traditional health care system that focuses on health equity-producing social policy. PHC includes all areas that play a role in health, such as access to health services, environment and lifestyle. Thus, primary healthcare and public health measures, taken together, may be considered as the cornerstones of universal health systems
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Developed Countries
A DEVELOPED COUNTRY, INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRY, MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRY, or "MORE ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPED COUNTRY" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income , level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living. Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. Developed countries have post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector . They are contrasted with developing countries , which are in the process of industrialization , or undeveloped countries, which are pre-industrial and almost entirely agrarian
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