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Essential Medicines
Essential medicines, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), are the medicines that "satisfy the priority health care needs of the population".[1] These are the medications to which people should have access at all times in sufficient amounts. The prices should be at generally affordable levels.[2] The WHO has published a model list of essential medicines. Each country is encouraged to prepare their own lists taking into consideration local priorities. Over 150 countries have published an official essential medicines list.[3] The essential medicines list enables health authorities, especially in developing countries, to optimize pharmaceutical resources. The WHO List contains a core list and a complementary list. The core list presents a list of minimum medicine needs for a basic health care system, listing the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective medicines for priority conditions
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Antidote
An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.[1] The term ultimately derives from the Greek (φάρμακον) ἀντίδοτον (pharmakon) antidoton, "(medicine) given as a remedy". Antidotes for anticoagulants are often referred to as reversal agents.[citation needed] The antidotes for some particular toxins are manufactured by injecting the toxin into an animal in small doses and extracting the resulting antibodies from the host animals' blood. This results in an antivenom that can be used to counteract poison produced by certain species of snakes, spiders, and other venomous animals
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Sustainable Development Goals
The Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs) - also known as the Global Goals for Sustainable Development - are a collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations. The broad goals are interrelated though each has its own targets to achieve. The total number of targets is 169. The SDGs cover a broad range of social and economic development issues. These include poverty, hunger, health, education, climate change, gender equality, water, sanitation, energy, urbanization, environment and social justice.[1] The SDGs are also known as "Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" or 2030 Agenda in short.[2] The goals were developed to replace the Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) which ended in 2015. Unlike the MDGs, the SDG framework does not distinguish between "developed" and "developing" nations
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Antineoplastic
Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
(often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy). Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology. The term chemotherapy has come to connote non-specific usage of intracellular poisons to inhibit mitosis, or cell division. The connotation excludes more selective agents that block extracellular signals (signal transduction)
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Antimigraine
An antimigraine drug is a medication intended to reduce the effects or intensity of migraine headache. Examples include triptans[1] such as zolmitriptan [2] and ergot alkaloids such as methysergide. Antimigraine
Antimigraine
medications are classified under "N02C" in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System References[edit]^ pharmamotion.com > Serotonin (5-HT): receptors, agonists and antagonists Archived 2009-09-15 at the Wayback Machine. By Flavio Guzmán, M.D. on 9/08/09 ^ Morikawa T, Matsuzawa Y, Makita K, Katayama Y (2006). "Antimigraine drug, zolmitriptan, inhibits high-voltage activated calcium currents in a population of acutely dissociated rat trigeminal sensory neurons". Molecular Pain. 2 (1): 10. doi:10.1186/1744-8069-2-10. PMC 1434723 
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Pharmaceutical Formulation
Pharmaceutical formulation, in pharmaceutics, is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active drug, are combined to produce a final medicinal product. The word formulation is often used in a way that includes dosage form.Contents1 Stages and timeline1.1 Container closure2 Formulation types 3 Enteral formulations3.1 Tablet 3.2 Capsule 3.3 Sustained release4 Parenteral
Parenteral
formulations4.1 Liquid 4.2 Lyophilized5 Topical formulations5.1 Cutaneous6 See also 7 References 8 External linksStages and timeline[edit] Formulation studies involve developing a preparation of the drug which is both stable and acceptable to the patient. For orally administered drugs, this usually involves incorporating the drug into a tablet or a capsule
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Cost Effectiveness
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action. Cost-effectiveness analysis is distinct from cost–benefit analysis, which assigns a monetary value to the measure of effect.[1] Cost-effectiveness analysis is often used in the field of health services, where it may be inappropriate to monetize health effect
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Primary Health Care
Primary healthcare
Primary healthcare
(PHC) refers to "essential health care" that is based on "scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, which make universal health care accessible to all individuals and families in a community
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Alma Ata Declaration
The Declaration of Alma-Ata was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care
Primary Health Care
(PHC), Almaty
Almaty
(formerly Alma-Ata), Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(formerly Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic), 6–12 September 1978.[1] It expressed the need for urgent action by all governments, all health and development workers, and the world community to protect and promote the health of all people. It was the first international declaration underlining the importance of primary health care. The primary health care approach has since then been accepted by member countries of the World Health
Health
Organization (WHO) as the key to achieving the goal of " Health
Health
For All" but only in developing countries at first
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Developing World
A developing country, also called a less developed country or an underdeveloped country, is a nation with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) relative to other countries.[1] However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category.[2] A nation's GDP per capita
GDP per capita
compared with other nations can also be a reference point. The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a changing dynamic or expected direction of progress. Since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries.[3] There is criticism for using the term developing country. The term implies inferiority of a developing country or undeveloped country compared with a developed country, which many countries dislike
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Developed Countries
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living.[1] Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. Developed countries have post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector. They are contrasted with developing countries, which are in the process of industrialization, or undeveloped countries, which are pre-industrial and almost entirely agrarian
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Cost-effective
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action. Cost-effectiveness analysis is distinct from cost–benefit analysis, which assigns a monetary value to the measure of effect.[1] Cost-effectiveness analysis is often used in the field of health services, where it may be inappropriate to monetize health effect
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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