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Ernest Ansermet
Ernest Alexandre Ansermet (pronounced [ɛʁ.nɛst a.lɛk.sɑ̃dʁ ɑ̃.sɛʁ.mɛ]; 11 November 1883 – 20 February 1969)[1] was a Swiss conductor.Contents1 Biography 2 Notable premieres2.1 In concert 2.2 On stage 2.3 On record3 Writings3.1 Correspondence4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Ansermet was born in Vevey,[1] Switzerland. Originally he was a mathematics professor, teaching at the University of Lausanne. He began conducting at the Casino in Montreux
Montreux
in 1912, and from 1915 to 1923 was the conductor for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Travelling in France for this, he met both Debussy and Ravel, and consulted them on the performance of their works. During World War I, he met Stravinsky, who was exiled in Switzerland and from this meeting began the conductor's lifelong association with Russian music. In 1918 Ansermet founded his own orchestra, the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR)
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Conducting
Conducting
Conducting
is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert
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Albéric Magnard
Lucien Denis Gabriel Albéric Magnard
Albéric Magnard
(French pronunciation: ​[lysjɑ̃ dəni ɡabʁijɛl albeʁik maɲaːʁ]; 9 June 1865 – 3 September 1914) was a French composer, sometimes referred to as the "French Bruckner"[according to whom?], though there are significant differences between the two composers. Magnard became a national hero in 1914 when he refused to surrender his property to German invaders and died defending it.Contents1 Biography 2 Work2.1 List of compositions2.1.1 Discography3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Magnard was born in Paris
Paris
to François Magnard, a bestselling author and editor of Le Figaro
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Magnetic Tape
Magnetic tape
Magnetic tape
is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film. It was developed in Germany
Germany
in 1928, based on magnetic wire recording. Devices that record and play back audio and video using magnetic tape are tape recorders and video tape recorders. A device that stores computer data on magnetic tape is known as a tape drive. Magnetic tape
Magnetic tape
revolutionized broadcast and recording. It allowed radio, which had always been broadcast live, to be recorded for later or repeated airing. It allowed gramophone records to be recorded in multiple parts, which were then mixed and edited with tolerable loss in quality
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Nocturnes (Debussy)
Nocturnes (L. 91), sometimes Trois Nocturnes or Three Nocturnes, is an orchestral composition in three movements by the French composer Claude Debussy. It was completed on 15 December 1899.Contents1 Possible genesis 2 Movements 3 Instrumentation 4 Arrangements 5 References 6 External linksPossible genesis[edit] Nocturnes may be connected to two earlier works, neither of which was ever finished, and the scores to both of which are lost. In 1892 the composer wrote that he was nearly finished with Trois Scènes au Crépuscule ("Three Twilight Scenes"), an orchestral triptych after poems by Henri de Régnier. Debussy also worked on a violin concerto for Eugène Ysaÿe, which he called "a study in gray painting". He abandoned both pieces when close to finishing them
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Prélude à L'après-midi D'un Faune
Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune
Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune
(L. 86), known in English as Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, is a symphonic poem for orchestra by Claude Debussy, approximately 10 minutes in duration. It was first performed in Paris on 22 December 1894, conducted by Gustave Doret.[1][2] The flute solo was played by Georges Barrère. Debussy's work later provided the basis for the ballet Afternoon of a Faun
Faun
choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky
Vaslav Nijinsky
and a later version by Jerome Robbins.Contents1 Background 2 Composition 3 Ballet version 4 Literature 5 In popular culture5.1 Film 5.2 Lectures 5.3 Music 5.4 Television6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksBackground[edit] The composition was inspired by the poem L'après-midi d'un faune by Stéphane Mallarmé
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Joseph Haydn
(Franz) Joseph Haydn[n 1] (/ˈhaɪdən/; German: [ˈjoːzɛf ˈhaɪdən] ( listen); 31 March[n 2] 1732 – 31 May 1809) was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the piano trio[2] and his contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet".[3] Haydn spent much of his career as a court musician for the wealthy Esterházy
Esterházy
family at their remote estate
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Ludwig Van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
(/ˈlʊdvɪɡ væn ˈbeɪˌtoʊvən/ ( listen), /ˈbeɪtˌhoʊvən/; German: [ˈluːtvɪç fan ˈbeːtˌhoˑfn̩] ( listen); baptised 17 December 1770[1] – 26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Classical music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His best-known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, 1 violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, 16 string quartets, his great Mass the Missa solemnis, and one opera, Fidelio. Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne
Electorate of Cologne
and part of the Holy Roman Empire, Beethoven displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven
Johann van Beethoven
and by composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe
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Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms
(German: [joˈhanəs ˈbʁaːms]; 7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period. Born in Hamburg
Hamburg
into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna, Austria. His reputation and status as a composer is such that he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
as one of the "Three Bs" of music, a comment originally made by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow. Brahms composed for symphony orchestra, chamber ensembles, piano, organ, and voice and chorus. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works. He worked with some of the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann
Clara Schumann
and the violinist Joseph Joachim (the three were close friends)
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London
London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Philharmonia
The Philharmonia Orchestra
Orchestra
is a British orchestra based in London. It was founded in 1945 by Walter Legge, a classical music record producer for EMI. Since 1995, the orchestra has been based in the Royal Festival Hall. The Philharmonia also has residencies at De Montfort Hall, Leicester; the Marlowe Theatre, Canterbury; the Corn Exchange, Bedford; and The Anvil, Basingstoke. Esa-Pekka Salonen
Esa-Pekka Salonen
has been the orchestra's principal conductor and artistic advisor since 2008
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Édouard Lalo
Édouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo (27 January 1823 – 22 April 1892) was a French composer. Easily his most celebrated piece is his Symphonie espagnole, a popular work in the standard repertoire for violin and orchestra.Contents1 Biography 2 Popular culture 3 Compositions 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Lalo was born in Lille
Lille
(Nord), in northernmost France. He attended that city's conservatoire in his youth. Then, beginning at age 16, Lalo studied at the Paris
Paris
Conservatoire under François Antoine Habeneck. Habeneck conducted student concerts at the Conservatoire from 1806 onwards and became the founding conductor of the Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire in 1828. (Berlioz, in his memoirs, denounced Habeneck for incompetence in conducting Berlioz's Requiem.) For several years, Lalo worked as a string player and teacher in Paris
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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
(/ˈɪljɪtʃ tʃaɪˈkɒfski/ IL-yitch chy-KOF-skee;[1] Russian: Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский;[a 1] 25 April/7 May 1840 – 25 October/6 November 1893),[a 2] often anglicized as Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky, was a Russian composer of the romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular music in the classical repertoire. He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, bolstered by his appearances as a guest conductor in Europe and the United States. Tchaikovsky was honored in 1884 by Emperor Alexander III, and awarded a lifetime pension. Although musically precocious, Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as a civil servant. There was scant opportunity for a musical career in Russia at that time and no system of public music education
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Six épigraphes Antiques
Six épigraphes antiques, L. 131, is a suite of six pieces by Claude Debussy, originally written for piano duo. Completed in July 1914, the suite was Debussy's only completed composition that year. In 1915 Debussy transcribed them for piano solo. Much of the music (over 100 measures) is taken from the musical accompaniments he had written in 1901 for his friend Pierre Louÿs's erotic lesbian poems Les Chansons de Bilitis.[1][2] See also[edit]Astilla, Christopher. "Between the Staves"---Adaptations of Debussy's "Six Epigraphes Antiques" and Creative Tasks of the Performer. ProQuest. ISBN 9780549458920.  List of compositions by Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy
by genreNotes[edit]^ Wheeldon, Marianne. Debussy's Late Style. Indiana University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0253352398.  ^ Snyder, Harvey Lee. Afternoon of a Faun: How Debussy Created a New Music for the Modern World. Hal Leonard Corporation
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Geneva
Geneva
Geneva
(/dʒɪˈniːvə/, French: Genève [ʒənɛv], Arpitan: Genèva [dzəˈnɛva], German: Genf [ɡɛnf], Italian: Ginevra [dʒiˈneːvra], Romansh: Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland
Switzerland
(after Zürich) and is the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland
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Mass (Stravinsky)
Mass
Mass
is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.[1] It also determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies. The basic SI unit
SI unit
of mass is the kilogram (kg). In physics, mass is not the same as weight, even though mass is often determined by measuring the object's weight using a spring scale, rather than balance scale comparing it directly with known masses. An object on the Moon
Moon
would weigh less than it does on Earth
Earth
because of the lower gravity, but it would still have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that (along with gravity) determines the strength of this force. In Newtonian physics, mass can be generalized as the amount of matter in an object
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