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Erna Schneider Hoover
DR. ERNA SCHNEIDER HOOVER (born June 19, 1926) is an American mathematician notable for inventing a computerized telephone switching method which "revolutionized modern communication" according to several reports. It prevented system overloads by monitoring call center traffic and prioritizing tasks on phone switching systems to enable more robust service during peak calling times. At Bell Laboratories where she worked for over 32 years, Hoover was described as an important pioneer for women in the field of computer technology. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Awards * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY LIFEErna Schneider was born on June 19, 1926 in Irvington, New Jersey
Irvington, New Jersey
. Her family lived in South Orange, New Jersey
South Orange, New Jersey
and her father was a dentist and her mother was a teacher. She had a younger brother who died from polio at the age of five
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Swarthmore College
SWARTHMORE COLLEGE (/ˈswɑːθ.mɔːr/ SWAHTH-mor locally, or /ˈswɔːrθ.mɔːr/ SWAWRTH-mor ) is a private liberal arts college located in Swarthmore , Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, 11 miles (18 km) southwest of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
. Founded in 1864, Swarthmore was one of the earliest coeducational colleges in the United States
United States
. It was established to be a college "...under the care of Friends, at which an education may be obtained equal to that of the best institutions of learning in our country." By 1906, Swarthmore dropped its religious affiliation, becoming officially non-sectarian. Swarthmore is a member of the " Tri-College Consortium ", a cooperative arrangement among Swarthmore, Bryn Mawr , and Haverford Colleges
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Logic
LOGIC (from the Ancient Greek : λογική, translit. logikḗ ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference . A valid inference is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the inference and its conclusion . (In ordinary discourse, inferences may be signified by words like therefore, hence, ergo and so on.) There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see § Rival conceptions , below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the 'logical form' common to all valid arguments, the study of inference , including fallacies , and the study of semantics , including paradoxes
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Philosophy
PHILOSOPHY (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning , critical discussion , rational argument , and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real ? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will ? Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge
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Phi Beta Kappa
The PHI BETA KAPPA SOCIETY (ΦΒΚ) – the oldest honor society for the liberal arts and sciences in the United States
United States
– is widely recognized and considered as the nation's most prestigious honor society. Phi Beta Kappa aims to promote and advocate excellence in the liberal arts and sciences and to induct the most outstanding students of arts and sciences at American colleges and universities. Founded at The College of William and Mary on December 5, 1776
1776
, as the first collegiate Greek-letter fraternity , it was among the earliest collegiate fraternal societies and remains the oldest existing American academic honor society
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B.A.
A BACHELOR OF ARTS (B.A., or A.B., from the Latin
Latin
baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor\'s degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts , sciences, or both. Bachelor of Arts programs generally take three to four years depending on the country, institution, and specific specializations, majors, or minors. The word baccalaureus (from the Latin
Latin
bacca, a berry, and laureus, "of the bay laurel ") should not be confused with baccalaureatus (translatable as "gold-plated scepter" by using the Latina bacum and aureatus), which refers to the one- to two-year postgraduate Bachelor of Arts with Honors degree (Baccalaureatus in Artibus Cum Honore) in some countries
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Symbolic Logic
MATHEMATICAL LOGIC is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics. It bears close connections to metamathematics , the foundations of mathematics , and theoretical computer science . The unifying themes in mathematical logic include the study of the expressive power of formal systems and the deductive power of formal proof systems. Mathematical logic is often divided into the fields of set theory , model theory , recursion theory , and proof theory . These areas share basic results on logic, particularly first-order logic , and definability . In computer science (particularly in the ACM Classification ) mathematical logic encompasses additional topics not detailed in this article; see Logic in computer science for those. Since its inception, mathematical logic has both contributed to, and has been motivated by, the study of foundations of mathematics
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Feedback
Collective intelligence
Collective intelligence
Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality
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History Of The Telephone
This HISTORY OF THE TELEPHONE chronicles the development of the electrical telephone , and includes a brief review of its predecessors. CONTENTS* 1 Telephone
Telephone
prehistory * 1.1 Mechanical devices * 1.2 Electrical devices * 2 Invention of the telephone
Invention of the telephone
* 2.1 Invention of the telephone
Invention of the telephone
exchange * 3 Early telephone developments * 4 Early commercial instruments * 5 20th century developments * 6 Women\'s usage in the 20th century * 7 21st century developments * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links TELEPHONE PREHISTORYMECHANICAL DEVICES A 19th century acoustic 'tin can ', or 'lover's' telephone Before the invention of electromagnetic telephones , mechanical acoustic devices existed for transmitting speech and music over a distance greater than that of normal direct speech
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The College Of New Jersey
THE COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY, abbreviated TCNJ, is a public , coeducational university in the Trenton suburb of Ewing Township , New Jersey , United States. TCNJ was established in 1855 by an act of the New Jersey Legislature . The institution was the first normal school in the state of New Jersey and the fifth in the United States. Originally located in Trenton proper, the college was moved to its present location in adjacent Ewing Township during the early to mid-1930s. Since its inception, TCNJ has undergone several name changes, the most recent being the 1996 change to its current name from TRENTON STATE COLLEGE. TCNJ is a highly selective institution, with a stated mission to keep New Jersey's most talented students in-state for higher education
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Artificial Intelligence
Collective intelligence
Collective intelligence
Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality
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TCNJ
THE COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY (TCNJ) is a public , coeducational university in the Trenton suburb of Ewing Township , New Jersey , United States. TCNJ was established in 1855 by an act of the New Jersey Legislature . The institution was the first normal school in the state of New Jersey and the fifth in the United States. Originally located in Trenton proper, the college was moved to its present location in adjacent Ewing Township during the early to mid-1930s. Since its inception, TCNJ has undergone several name changes, the most recent being the 1996 change to its current name from Trenton State College . TCNJ is a highly selective institution, with a stated mission to keep New Jersey's most talented students in-state for higher education. The college is recognized as one of the best public institutions in the United States and is consistently ranked as the No
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Marie Curie
MARIE SKłODOWSKA CURIE (/ˈkjʊəri/ ; French: ; Polish: ; born MARIA SALOMEA SKłODOWSKA ; 7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity . She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
, the first person and only woman to win twice , the only person to win a Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in two different sciences, and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris
University of Paris
, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris. She was born in Warsaw
Warsaw
, in what was then the Kingdom of Poland , part of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire

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Higher Education In The United States
HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES is an optional final stage of formal learning following secondary education . Higher education
Higher education
, also referred to as post-secondary education, third stage, third level, or tertiary education occurs most commonly at one of the 4,726 Title IV degree-granting institutions, either colleges or universities in the country. These may be public universities , private universities , liberal arts colleges , community colleges , or for-profit colleges . High visibility issues include greater use of the Internet, such as massive open online courses , competency-based education , sexual assault , cutbacks in state and local spending, rapidly rising tuition and increasing student loan debt According to the National Student Clearinghouse , US college enrollment has declined for five consecutive years and is projected to continue declining for the next two decades
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Yale University
YALE UNIVERSITY is an American private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university in New Haven, Connecticut . Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States
United States
and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution
American Revolution
. Chartered by Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony , the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy in Saybrook Colony to educate Congregational ministers. It moved to New Haven
New Haven
in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College
Yale College
in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale
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Wellesley College
Coordinates : 42°17′43″N 71°18′24″W / 42.29528°N 71.30667°W / 42.29528; -71.30667 Wellesley College
Wellesley College
Latin
Latin
: Collegium Wellesleianum FORMER NAMES Wellesley Female Seminary MOTTO Non Ministrari sed Ministrare ( Latin
Latin
) MOTTO IN ENGLISH Not to be ministered unto, but to minister TYPE Private liberal arts college Women\'s college ESTABLISHED 1870 (chartered) 1875 (commenced classes) ENDOWMENT $1.784 billion (2016) PRESIDENT Paula A
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