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Erich Von Falkenhayn
General Erich Georg Anton von Falkenhayn (11 September 1861 – 8 April 1922) was the Chief of the German General Staff during the First World War from September 1914 until 29 August 1916. He was removed in the late summer of 1916 after the failure at the battle of Verdun, the opening of the Allied offensive on the Somme, the Brusilov Offensive and the entry of Romania into the war. He was later given important field commands in Romania and Syria. His reputation as a war leader was attacked in Germany during and after the war, especially by the faction which supported Hindenburg. Falkenhayn held that Germany could not win the war by a decisive battle but would have to reach a compromise peace; his enemies said he lacked the resolve necessary to win a decisive victory
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Magdeburg
Magdeburg (German pronunciation: [ˈmakdəbʊɐ̯k] (About this sound listen); Low Saxon: Meideborg, [ˈmaˑɪdebɔɐ̯x]) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Magdeburg is situated on the Elbe River and was one of the most important medieval cities of Europe. Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor and founder of the archbishopric of Magdeburg, was buried in the town's cathedral after his death. Magdeburg's version of German town law, known as Magdeburg rights, spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe. The city is also well known for the Sack of Magdeburg, which sparked outrage across the Protestant world and became the worst massacre of the Thirty Years' War. Prior to it, Magdeburg was one of the largest and most prosperous German cities, and a notable member of the Hanseatic League. Magdeburg was destroyed twice in its history
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West Prussia
The Province of West Prussia (German: Provinz Westpreußen; Kashubian: Zôpadné Prësë; Polish: Prusy Zachodnie) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1824 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); it also briefly formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia until 1919/20. It was created out of the earlier Polish province of Royal Prussia following the First Partition of Poland
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Ottoman Army (1861–1922)
The Ottoman Army was reorganized along modern Western European lines during the Tanzimat modernization period and functioned during the decline and dissolution period that is roughly between 1861 (though as a unit First Army dates 1842) and 1918, end of World War I for the Ottomans. The last reorganization occurred during the Second Constitutional Era. The uniforms of the modern army tended to reflect the uniform of those countries who were the principal advisors to the Ottoman army at the time. The Ottoman government considered adopting western style headdress for all personnel within the army, but the fez was favoured because of its user friendliness during the postures of the Islamic ritual prayer. French style uniform and court dress were common during the early stage of the Tanzimat modernization period
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Mushir
Mushir (Arabic: مشير‎) is an Arab word meaning "counsellor" or "advisor". It is related to the word shura, meaning consultation or "taking counsel". As an official title, it historically indicates a personal advisor to the ruler. In this use it is roughly comparable to the European titles of State Counsellor and counsellor of state. In a military context, mushir became associated with the idea of the ruler's personal counsellor or advisor on military matters, and as such became the highest rank in Arab countries and the Ottoman Empire. It is used as the highest rank in most armed forces of the Middle East and North Africa, for armies, navies, and air forces
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Archduke Franz Ferdinand Of Austria
Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia
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Grudziądz
Grudziądz [ˈɡrud͡ʑɔnt͡s] (About this sound listen) (German: Graudenz, Latin: Graudentum or Graudentium or Grudentia) is a city of around 96,042 inhabitants (2010) on the Vistula River in northern Poland
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Poland
Poland (Polish: Polska [ˈpɔlska] (About this sound listen)), officially the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska [ʐɛt͡ʂpɔˈspɔlita ˈpɔlska] (About this sound listen)), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin. The establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to 966 A.D., when Mieszko I, ruler of the territory coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity
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Order Of The Black Eagle
The Order of the Black Eagle (German: Hoher Orden vom Schwarzen Adler) was the highest order of chivalry in the Kingdom of Prussia. The order was founded on 17 January 1701 by Elector Friedrich III of Brandenburg (who became Friedrich I, King in Prussia, the following day). In his Dutch exile after World War I, deposed Emperor Wilhelm II continued to award the order to his family
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Wilhelm, German Crown Prince
Wilhelm, German Crown Prince (Friedrich Wilhelm Victor August Ernst, 6 May 1882 – 20 July 1951) was the eldest child of the soon-to-be German Emperor Wilhelm II and his wife Empress Augusta Victoria, and the last Crown Prince of the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. After the death of his grandfather Emperor Frederick III, Wilhelm became crown prince at the age of six, retaining that title for more than 30 years until the fall of the empire on 5 November 1918. During World War I, he commanded the 5th Army from 1914 to 1916 and was commander of Army Group German Crown Prince for the remainder of the war
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Qing
Tael (liǎng)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Later Jin
Shun
Southern Ming
Dzungar
Republic of China
Mongolia
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /ɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912
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Northeast China
Northeast China (simplified Chinese: 中国东北; traditional Chinese: 中國東北; pinyin: Zhōngguó Dōngběi) or Dongbei is a geographical region of China. It also historically corresponds with the term Manchuria in the English language. It consists specifically of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang, collectively referred as the Three Northeastern Provinces (东北三省, Dōngběi sānshěng), but broadly also encompasses the eastern part of Inner Mongolia. The region is separated from Far Eastern Russia to the north largely by the Amur, Argun and Ussuri rivers, from North Korea to the south by the Yalu River and Tumen River, and from the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region to the west by the Greater Khingan Range. The heartland of the region is the Northeast China Plain
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Korea
Korea (/kəˈrə/) is a historical region in East Asia; since 1945, it has been divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Korea (officially the "Republic of Korea"). Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea). Korea emerged as a singular political entity in 676 AD, after centuries of conflict among the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which were unified as Unified Silla to the south and Balhae to the north. Unified Silla divided into three separate states during the Later Three Kingdoms period. Goryeo, which had succeeded Goguryeo, defeated the two other states and united the Korean Peninsula. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo
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