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Erbil
Erbil, locally called Hawler (Kurdish: ھەولێر‎ Hewlêr; Arabic: أربيل‎, Arbīl; Syriac: ܐܲܪܒܝܠ‎, Arbela), also spelt Arbil or Irbil, is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
and the largest city in northern Iraq. It is located approximately 350 kilometres (220 miles) north of Baghdad. It has about 850,000 inhabitants,[1] and its governorate had a permanent population of 2,009,367 as of 2015[update].[2] Human settlement at Erbil
Erbil
can be dated back to possibly 5000 BC, and it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited areas in the world.[3] At the heart of the city is the ancient Citadel of Arbil. The earliest historical reference to the region dates to the Ur III
Ur III
dynasty of Sumer, when king Shulgi
Shulgi
mentioned the city of Urbilum
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Capital City
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place. Capital cities that are also the prime economic, cultural, or intellectual centres of a nation or an empire are sometimes referred to as primate cities
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Geo-political
Geopolitics
Geopolitics
(from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.[1] While geopolitics usually refers to countries and relations between them, it may also focus on two other kinds of states: de facto independent states with limited international recognition and; relations between sub-national geopolitical entities, such as the federated states that make up a federation, confederation or a quasi-federal system. At the level of international relations, geopolitics is a method of studying foreign policy to understand, explain and predict international political behavior through geographical variables
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Macedonian Empire
Macedonia (/ˌmæsɪˈdoʊniə/ ( listen)) or Macedon (/ˈmæsɪˌdɒn/; Greek: Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece,[4] and later the dominant state of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Greece.[5] The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, which was followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties
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Seleucid Syria
The Seleucid Empire
Empire
(/sɪˈljuːsɪd/;[6] Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator
founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.[7][8][9][10] Seleucus received Babylonia
Babylonia
(321 BC), and from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near-eastern territories
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Parthian Empire
The Parthian Empire
Empire
(/ˈpɑːrθiən/; 247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire
Empire
(/ˈɑːrsəsɪd/),[9] was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran
Iran
and Iraq.[10] Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia[11] who, as leader of the Parni
Parni
tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia[12] in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. Mithridates I of Parthia
Parthia
(r. c. 171–138 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the Seleucids. At its height, the Parthian Empire
Empire
stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran
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Assyria (Roman Province)
Assyria
Assyria
was a Roman province
Roman province
that lasted only two years (116–118 AD).Contents1 History 2 Location 3 Further Roman activity in the region 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Assyria
Assyria
was one of three provinces (with Armenia
Armenia
and Mesopotamia) created by the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Trajan[1] in 116 AD following a successful military campaign against Parthia, in present-day Iraq. Despite Rome's military victory, Trajan's province was plagued with difficulties from the start. In 116, a Parthian prince named Santruces organized an armed revolt by the native Assyrians in the new Roman province
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Sassanid Empire
Temporarily controlled during the Byzantine– Sasanian
Sasanian
War of 602–628:  Abkhazia[12]  Russia (  Dagestan
Dagestan
and  Chechnya)  Turkey  Lebanon  Israel   Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
( West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza strip)[13]  Jordan  EgyptPart of a series on theHistory of IranMythological historyPishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynastyAncient periodBCPrehistory of Iran Ancient Times–4000Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000Proto-Elamite 3200–2700Jiroft culture c. 3100 – c. 2200Elam 2700–539 Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire 2400–2150Kassites c. 1500 – c
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Assuristan
Early Assyrian Period
Early Assyrian Period
(2600 BCE – 2025 BCE) Old Assyrian Empire
Old Assyrian Empire
(2025 BC - 1378 BCE)
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Arab
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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Muslim Conquest Of Persia
KhuzestanHormizd-Ardashir Susa Ram-Hormizd Shushtar GundishapurCentral PersiaNahavand Spahan Waj Rudh RayNorthern PersiaTabaristan Armenia Azerbaijan Caucasian Albania IberiaParsBishapur Darabgerd 1st Estakhr Gor 2nd EstakhrKermanSirjan QeshmSakastanZaranjKhorasan Oxus
Oxus
River Nishapur Herat Badghisv t eEarly Muslim
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Medieval
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Gutians
The Guti (/ˈɡuːti/) or Quti, also known by the derived exonyms Gutians or Guteans, were a nomadic people of the Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
(on the border of modern Iran
Iran
and Iraq) during ancient times. Their homeland was known as Gutium
Gutium
(Sumerian: 𒄖𒌅𒌝𒆠,Gu-tu-umki or 𒄖𒋾𒌝𒆠,Gu-ti-umki)[1][2] Conflict between people from Gutium
Gutium
and the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
has been linked to the collapse of the empire, towards the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. The Guti subsequently overran southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and formed a royal dynasty in Sumer
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Seljuk Empire
in Anatolia Artuqid
Artuqid
dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid
Burid
dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editThe Great Seljuq Empire
Empire
(Turkish Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu) or Great Seljuk State (Turkmen Beỳik Seljuk Döwleti), known by its endonym Āl-e Saljuq (Persian آلِ سلجوق‬ "The House (family/clan) of Seljuk") was a medieval Turko-Persian[14] Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.[15] The Seljuk Empire
Empire
controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to western Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Levant, and from Central Asia
Central Asia
to the Persian Gulf
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Turkish People
  Turkey
Turkey
63,589,988–65,560,701 (2008 est. of 2015 pop.)[1]   Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
280,000 d[›][2][3] Germany 2,852,000 (incl
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