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Equant
EQUANT (or PUNCTUM AEQUANS) is a mathematical concept developed by Claudius Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy
in the 2nd century AD to account for the observed motion of the planets. The equant is used to explain the observed speed change in planetary orbit during different stages of the orbit. This planetary concept allowed Ptolemy
Ptolemy
to keep the theory of uniform circular motion alive by stating that the path of heavenly bodies was uniform around one point and circular around another point. CONTENTS * 1 Placement * 2 Equation * 3 Discovery and use * 4 Criticism * 5 References * 6 External links * 7 See also PLACEMENTThe EQUANT POINT, indicated in the diagram by the large • , is placed so that it is directly opposite the Earth from the center of the deferent (known as the "eccentric"), indicated by the X
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Bibcode
The BIBCODE (also known as the REFCODE) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references. CONTENTS * 1 Adoption * 2 Format * 3 Examples * 4 See also * 5 References ADOPTIONThe Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System who coined and prefer the term "bibcode". FORMATThe code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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American Journal Of Physics
The AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics
American Institute of Physics
. The editor is Richard H. Price of the University of Utah
University of Utah
. CONTENTS * 1 Aims and scope * 2 History * 3 Abstracting and indexing * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links AIMS AND SCOPEThe focus of this journal is undergraduate and graduate level physics. The intended audience is college and university physics teachers and students. Coverage includes current research in physics, instructional laboratory equipment, laboratory demonstrations, teaching methodologies, lists of resources, and book reviews. In addition, historical, philosophical and cultural aspects of physics are also covered
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Astronomia Nova
ASTRONOMIA NOVA (English : New Astronomy, full title in original Latin
Latin
"> as a device to explain the observed positions of the planets rather than a physical description. Kepler sought for and proposed physical causes for planetary motion. His work is primarily based on the research of his mentor, Tycho Brahe . The two, though close in their work, had a tumultuous relationship. Regardless, on his deathbed, Brahe asked Kepler to make sure that he did not “die in vain,” and to continue the development of his Tychonic system . Kepler would instead write the Astronomia nova, in which he rejects the Tychonic system, as well as the Ptolemaic system and the Copernican system . Some scholars have speculated that Kepler’s dislike for Brahe may have had a hand in his rejection of the Tychonic system and formation of a new one
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Uraniborg
URANIBORG (Danish : Uranienborg, Swedish : Uraniborg) was a Danish astronomical observatory and alchemical laboratory established and operated by Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
. It was built c. 1576 – c. 1580 on Hven , an island in the Øresund
Øresund
between Zealand and Scania
Scania
, which at that time was part of Denmark. Shortly after its construction, the observatory was expanded with an underground facility, Stjerneborg , on an adjacent site. Brahe abandoned Uranienborg and Stjerneborg in 1597 after he fell out of favor with the Danish king, and he left the country. The institution was destroyed in 1601 after Brahe's death. Hven
Hven
was later lost to Sweden
Sweden
. The Round Tower in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
was inaugurated in 1642 as a replacement for Uraniborg's astronomical functions
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ArXiv
The ARXIV (pronounced "archive ") is a repository of electronic preprints , known as e-prints , of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics , physics , astronomy , computer science , quantitative biology , statistics , and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million article milestone on October 3, 2008, and hit a million by the end of 2014. By 2014 the submission rate had grown to more than 8,000 per month. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Peer review
Peer review
* 3 Submission formats * 4 Access * 5 Copyright status of files * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY A screenshot of the arXiv taken in 1994, using the browser NCSA Mosaic . At the time, HTML forms were a new technology
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Thomas Kuhn
THOMAS SAMUEL KUHN (/kuːn/ ; July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist , historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift , which has since become an English-language idiom. Kuhn made several notable claims concerning the progress of scientific knowledge : that scientific fields undergo periodic "paradigm shifts" rather than solely progressing in a linear and continuous way, and that these paradigm shifts open up new approaches to understanding what scientists would never have considered valid before; and that the notion of scientific truth, at any given moment, cannot be established solely by objective criteria but is defined by a consensus of a scientific community . Competing paradigms are frequently incommensurable ; that is, they are competing and irreconcilable accounts of reality
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The Sleepwalkers
THE SLEEPWALKERS: A HISTORY OF MAN\'S CHANGING VISION OF THE UNIVERSE is a 1959 book by Arthur Koestler
Arthur Koestler
. It traces the history of Western cosmology from ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
to Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
. He suggests that discoveries in science arise through a process akin to sleepwalking. Not that they arise by chance, but rather that scientists are neither fully aware of what guides their research, nor are they fully aware of the implications of what they discover. CONTENTS * 1 Synopsis * 2 Publication data * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SYNOPSISA central theme of the book is the changing relationship between faith and reason. Koestler explores how these seemingly contradictory threads existed harmoniously in many of the greatest intellectuals of the West
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Arthur Koestler
ARTHUR KOESTLER, CBE (/ˈkɛstlər, ˈkɛslər/ ; German: ; Hungarian : Kösztler Artúr; 5 September 1905 – 1 March 1983) was a Hungarian-British author and journalist. Koestler was born in Budapest and, apart from his early school years, was educated in Austria. In 1931 Koestler joined the Communist Party of Germany until, disillusioned by Stalinism
Stalinism
, he resigned in 1938. In 1940 he published his novel Darkness at Noon , an anti-totalitarian work that gained him international fame. Over the next 43 years, from his residence in Britain, Koestler espoused many political causes, and wrote novels, memoirs, biographies and numerous essays. In 1968 he was awarded the Sonning Prize "for outstanding contribution to European culture" and in 1972 he was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE). In 1976 he was diagnosed with Parkinson\'s disease and in 1979 with terminal leukaemia
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Tycho Brahe
TYCHO BRAHE (/ˌtaɪkoʊ ˈbrɑːhi, ˈbrɑː, ˈbrɑːə/ , born TYGE OTTESEN BRAHE (Danish: ); 14 December 1546 – 24 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations. He was born in the then Danish peninsula of Scania
Scania
. Well known in his lifetime as an astronomer , astrologer and alchemist , he has been described as "the first competent mind in modern astronomy to feel ardently the passion for exact empirical facts ." His observations were some five times more accurate than the best available observations at the time. An heir to several of Denmark's principal noble families, he received a comprehensive education. He took an interest in astronomy and in the creation of more accurate instruments of measurement
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The Copernican Revolution (book)
THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTION is a 1957 book by the philosopher Thomas Kuhn , in which the author provides an analysis of the Copernican Revolution , documenting the pre-Ptolemaic understanding through the Ptolemaic system
Ptolemaic system
and its variants until the eventual acceptance of the Keplerian system . Kuhn argues that the Ptolemaic system
Ptolemaic system
provided broader appeal than a simple astronomical system but also became intertwined in broader philosophical and theological beliefs. Kuhn argues that this broader appeal made it more difficult for other systems to be proposed. SUMMATIONKuhn summarized at the end of The Copernican Revolution, citing the permanent achievements of Copernicus and Newton, while comparing the incommensurability of Newtonian physics with Aristotelian concepts that preceded the then new physics
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Aristotelian Physics
ARISTOTELIAN PHYSICS is a form of natural science described in the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle
Aristotle
(384–322 BCE ). In his work Physics
Physics
, Aristotle
Aristotle
intended to establish general principles of change that govern all natural bodies, both living and inanimate, celestial and terrestrial – including all motion, change with respect to place, change with respect to size or number, qualitative change of any kind; and "coming to be" (coming into existence , "generation") and "passing away" (no longer existing, "corruption"). To Aristotle, "physics" was a broad field that included subjects such as the philosophy of mind , sensory experience , memory , anatomy and biology . It constitutes the foundation of the thought underlying many of his works
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Mathematical
MATHEMATICS (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning"; often shortened to maths and math) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers ), structure , space , and change . There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of mathematics . Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures . Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof . When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic , mathematics developed from counting , calculation , measurement , and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist
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