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Ephemeris
In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris (plural: ephemerides; from Latin ephemeris, meaning 'diary', from Greek εφημερίς (ephemeris), meaning 'diary, journal'[1][2][3][4]) gives the positions of naturally occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky at a given time or times. Historically, positions were given as printed tables of values, given at regular intervals of date and time. Modern ephemerides are often computed electronically from mathematical models of the motion of astronomical objects and the Earth
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Heliocentric Model
Heliocentrism[1] is the astronomical model in which the Earth
Earth
and planets revolve around the Sun
Sun
at the center of the Solar System. Historically, Heliocentrism
Heliocentrism
was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth
Earth
at the center. The notion that the Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
had been proposed as early as the 3rd century BC by Aristarchus of Samos,[2] but at least in the medieval world, Aristarchus's Heliocentrism
Heliocentrism
attracted little attention—possibly because of the loss of scientific works of the Hellenistic Era.[3] It was not until the 16th century that a geometric mathematical model of a heliocentric system was presented, by the Renaissance mathematician, astronomer, and Catholic cleric Nicolaus Copernicus, leading to the Copernican Revolution
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Maragheh Observatory
Maragheh
Maragheh
observatory (Persian: رصدخانه مراغه‎), was an institutionalized astronomical observatory which was established in 1259 CE under the patronage of the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
Hulagu
Hulagu
and the directorship of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, a Persian scientist and astronomer. Located in the heights west of Maragheh, which is today situated in the East Azerbaijan Province
East Azerbaijan Province
of Iran, it was once considered one of the most prestigious observatories in the world.[citation needed] It was financed by waqf revenues, which allowed it to continue to operate even after the death of its founder and was active for more than 50 years
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Astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy
(from Greek: ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets; the phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe
Universe
as a whole.[1] Astronomy
Astronomy
is one of the oldest of the natural sciences
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Ibrāhīm Al-Fazārī
Ibrahim al-Fazari (died 777 CE) was an 8th-century mathematician and astronomer at the Abbasid court of the Caliph Al-Mansur (r. 754–775). He should not to be confused with his son Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī, also an astronomer. He composed various astronomical writings ("on the astrolabe", "on the armillary spheres", "on the calendar"). The Caliph ordered him and his son to translate the Indian astronomical text, The Sindhind along with Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭāriq, which was completed in Baghdad about 750 CE, and entitled Az-Zīj ‛alā Sinī al-‛Arab
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Muḥammad Ibn Mūsā Al-Khwārizmī
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[note 1] (Persian: محمد بن موسى خوارزمی‎; c. 780 – c. 850), formerly Latinized as Algoritmi,[note 2] was a Persian[3][4] scholar who produced works in mathematics, astronomy, and geography under the patronage of the Caliph Al-Ma'mun
Al-Ma'mun
of the Abbasid Caliphate.[5]:668 Around 820 AD he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom
House of Wisdom
in Baghdad.[6]:14 Al-Khwarizmi's popularizing treatise on algebra (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, ca. 813-833 CE[7]:171) presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic
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Tables Of Toledo
Toledo most commonly refers to:Toledo, Spain, a city and capital of the Province of Toledo Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United StatesLook up toledo or Toledo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Toledo may also refer to:Contents1 Places1.1 Belize 1.2 Brazil 1.3 Colombia 1.4 Philippines 1.5 Spain 1.6 United States 1.7 Uruguay2 Ships 3 Other uses 4 See alsoPlaces[edit] Belize[edit] Toledo District
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Astronomy In Medieval Islam
Islamic
Islamic
astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic
Islamic
world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age
(9th–13th centuries),[1] and mostly written in the Arabic language. These developments mostly took place in the Middle East, Central Asia, Al-Andalus, and North Africa, and later in the Far East
Far East
and India. It closely parallels the genesis of other Islamic
Islamic
sciences in its assimilation of foreign material and the amalgamation of the disparate elements of that material to create a science with Islamic characteristics
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Gerard Of Cremona
Gerard of Cremona
Cremona
(Latin: Gerardus Cremonensis; c. 1114 – 1187) was an Italian translator of scientific books from Arabic into Latin. He worked in Toledo, Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
and obtained the Arabic books in the libraries at Toledo. Some of the books had been originally written in Greek and were unavailable in Greek or Latin
Latin
in Europe at the time. Gerard of Cremona
Cremona
is the most important translator among the Toledo School of Translators who invigorated medieval Europe in the twelfth century by transmitting the Arab's and ancient Greek's knowledge in astronomy, medicine and other sciences, by making the knowledge available in the Latin
Latin
language
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Alfonsine Tables
The Alfonsine tables
Alfonsine tables
(Spanish: Tablas alfonsíes, Latin: tabulae alphonsinae), sometimes spelled Alphonsine tables, provided data for computing the position of the Sun, Moon
Moon
and planets relative to the fixed stars. The tables were named after Alfonso X of Castile, who sponsored their creation. They were compiled in Toledo, Spain, and contain astronomical data starting on January 1, 1252, the date of the coronation of the King.Contents1 Production 2 Methodology 3 Popularity 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksProduction[edit] Alfonso X assembled a team of scholars, known as the Toledo School of Translators, who among other translating tasks, were commanded to produce new tables that updated the Tables of Toledo
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Chinese Astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy
in China
China
has a long history, beginning from the Shang Dynasty (Chinese Bronze Age). Star names later categorized in the twenty-eight mansions have been found on oracle bones unearthed at Anyang, dating back to the middle Shang Dynasty, and the mansion (xiù:宿) system's nucleus seems to have taken shape by the time of the ruler Wu Ding (1339-1281 BC).[1] Detailed records of astronomical observations began during the Warring States period (fourth century BC) and flourished from the Han period onward
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Al-Khwārizmī
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[note 1] (Persian: محمد بن موسى خوارزمی‎; c. 780 – c. 850), formerly Latinized as Algoritmi,[note 2] was a Persian[3][4] scholar who produced works in mathematics, astronomy, and geography under the patronage of the Caliph Al-Ma'mun of the Abbasid Caliphate.[5]:668 Around 820 AD he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.[6]:14 Al-Khwarizmi's popularizing treatise on algebra (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, ca. 813-833 CE[7]:171) presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic
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Pepysian Library
The Pepys Library of Magdalene College, Cambridge, is the personal library collected by Samuel Pepys which he bequeathed to the college following his death in 1703.Pepys Building c1870Pepys was a lifelong bibliophile and carefully nurtured his large collection of books, manuscripts, and prints. At his death, there were more than 3,000 volumes, including the diary, all carefully catalogued and indexed; they form one of the most important surviving 17th-century private libraries.Library interior in 1890sPepys made detailed provisions in his will for the preservation of his book collection; and, when his nephew and heir, John Jackson, died, in 1723, it was transferred, intact, to Magdalene. The bequest included all the original bookcases and his elaborate instructions that placement of the books "... be strictly reviewed and, where found requiring it, more nicely adjusted"
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Regiomontanus
Johannes Müller von Königsberg
Königsberg
(6 June 1436 – 6 July 1476), better known as Regiomontanus, was a mathematician and astronomer of the German Renaissance, active in Vienna, Buda
Buda
and Nuremberg. His contributions were instrumental in the development of Copernican heliocentrism in the decades following his death. Regiomontanus
Regiomontanus
wrote under the Latinized name of Ioannes de Monteregio (or Monte Regio; Regio Monte); the adjectival Regiomontanus
Regiomontanus
was first used by Philipp Melanchthon
Philipp Melanchthon
in 1534
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Movable Type
Movable type
Movable type
(US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper. The world's first movable type printing press technology for printing paper books was made of porcelain materials and was invented around AD 1040 in China during the Northern Song Dynasty
Northern Song Dynasty
by the inventor Bi Sheng (990–1051).[1] Subsequently in 1377, the world's oldest extant movable metal print book, Jikji, was printed in Korea
Korea
during the Goryeo
Goryeo
dynasty
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Printing Press
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in which the cloth, paper or other medium was brushed or rubbed repeatedly to achieve the transfer of ink, and accelerated the process. Typically used for texts, the invention and global spread of the printing press was one of the most influential events in the second millennium.[1][2] Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed, circa 1439, a printing system by adapting existing technologies to printing purposes, as well as making inventions of his own. Printing
Printing
in East Asia had been prevalent since the Tang dynasty,[3][4] and in Europe, woodblock printing based on existing screw presses was common by the 14th century
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