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Environmental Justice
Environmental justice
Environmental justice
emerged as a concept in the United States in the early 1980s. The term has two distinct uses with the more common usage describing a social movement that focuses on the fair distribution of environmental benefits and burdens. The other use is an interdisciplinary body of social science literature that includes theories of the environment and justice, environmental laws and their implementations, environmental policy and planning and governance for development and sustainability, and political ecology.[1][2]Contents1 Definition 2 Environmental discrimination2.1 Litigation3 Initial barriers to minority participation3.1 Cost barriers4 Contributions of the Civil Rights Movement4.1 Similar goals and tactics 4.2 Existing organizations and leaders 4.3 Litigation5 Affected groups 6 Government agencies6.1 U.S
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Industrialisation
Industrialisation
Industrialisation
or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.[2] As industrial workers' incomes rise, markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds tend to expand and provide a further stimulus to industrial investment and economic growth.Contents1 Background 2 Social consequences2.1 Urbanisation2.1.1 Exploitation2.2 Changes in family structure3 Cur
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Machine Age
The Machine Age[1][2][3] is an era that includes the early 20th century, sometimes also including the late 19th century. An approximate dating would be about 1880 to 1945. Considered to be at a peak in the time between the first and second world wars, it forms a late part of the Second Industrial Revolution. The 1940s
1940s
saw the beginning of the Atomic Age, where modern physics saw new applications such as the atomic bomb,[4] the first computers,[5] and the transistor.[6] The Digital Revolution
Digital Revolution
ended the intellectual model of the machine age founded in the mechanical and heralding a new more complex model of high technology
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Law Of The Sea
Law of the Sea is a body of international law that concerns the principles and rules by which public entities, especially states, interact in maritime matters,[1] including navigational rights, sea mineral rights, and coastal waters jurisdiction. It is the public law counterpart to admiralty law, which concerns private maritime intercourse
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Property Law
Property
Property
law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system. In the civil law system, there is a division between movable and immovable property. Movable property roughly corresponds to personal property, while immovable property corresponds to real estate or real property, and the associated rights, and obligations thereon. The concept, idea or philosophy of property underlies all property law
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Progressivism
Progressivism
Progressivism
is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.[1] As a philosophy, it is based on the Idea of Progress, which asserts that advancements in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to the improvement of the human condition. Progressivism
Progressivism
became highly significant during the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
in Europe, out of the belief that Europe
Europe
was demonstrating that societies could progress in civility from uncivilized conditions to civilization through strengthening the basis of empirical knowledge as the foundation of society.[2] Figures of the Enlightenment believed that progress had universal application to all societies and that these ideas would spread across the world from Europe.[2] The meanings of progressivism have varied over time and from different perspectives
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Progress (history)
In historiography, progress (from Latin progressus, "advance", "(a) step onwards") is the study of how specific societies improved over time in terms of science, technology, modernization, liberty, democracy, longevity, quality of life, freedom from pollution and so on. Specific indicators can range from economic data, technical innovations, change in the political or legal system, and questions bearing on individual life chances, such as life expectancy and risk of disease and disability. Many high-level theories, such as the Idea of Progress are available, such as the Western notion of monotonic change in a straight, linear fashion
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Atomic Age
The Atomic Age, also known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear ("atomic") bomb, Trinity, on July 16, 1945, during World War II
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Age Of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
(also known as the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
or the Age of Reason;[1] in French: le Siècle des Lumières, lit. '"the Century of Lights"'; and in German: Aufklärung, "Enlightenment")[2] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".[3] The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.[4][5] In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church
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Industrial Age
The Industrial Age
Industrial Age
is a period of history that encompasses the changes in economic and social organization that began around 1760 in Great Britain and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines such as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments.[1][2] While it is commonly believed that the Industrial Age
Industrial Age
was supplanted by the Information Age
Information Age
in the late 20th century,[3] a view that has become common since the Revolutions of 1989, as of 2013 electric power generation is still based mostly on fossil fuels and much of the Third World economy is still based on manufacturing
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Information Age
The Information Age
The Information Age
(also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a period in human history characterized by the shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology
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Jet Age
The Jet Age
Jet Age
is a period in the history of aviation defined by the advent of aircraft powered by turbine engines, and by the social change this brought about. Jet airliners were able to fly much higher, faster, and farther than older piston‑powered propliners, making transcontinental and intercontinental travel considerably faster and easier: for example, aircraft leaving North America and crossing the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
(and later, the Pacific Ocean) could now fly to their destinations non-stop, making much of the world accessible within a single day's travel for the first time
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Progressive Era
The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s.[1] The main objectives of the Progressive movement were eliminating problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and corruption in government. The movement primarily targeted political machines and their bosses. By taking down these corrupt representatives in office a further means of direct democracy would be established
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Insurance Law
Insurance
Insurance
law is the practice of law surrounding insurance, including insurance policies and claims. It can be broadly broken into three categories - regulation of the business of insurance; regulation of the content of insurance policies, especially with regard to consumer policies; and regulation of claim handling.Contents1 History 2 Principles of insurance2.1 Insurable interest and indemnity 2.2 Utmost good faith 2.3 Warranties3 Regulation of insurance companies3.1 European Union 3.2 India 3.3 United Kingdom 3.4 United States 3.5 Rest of World4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] Main article: History of insurance The earliest form of insurance is probably marine insurance, although forms of mutuality (group self-insurance) existed before that
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Space Age
The Space Age
Space Age
is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events. The Space Age
Space Age
is generally considered to have begun with Sputnik
Sputnik
(1957).Contents1 Beginning 2 Current period 3 Chronology 4 Earlier spaceflights 5 Arts and architecture 6 See also 7 References 8 External links8.1 Interactive mediaBeginning[edit] The Space Age
Space Age
began with the development of several technologies that converged with the October 4, 1957 launch of Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union. This was the world's first artificial satellite, orbiting the Earth in 98.1 minutes and weighing 83 kg (183 lb)
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Economic Development
Economic development
Economic development
is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people. The term has been used frequently by economists, politicians, and others in the 20th and 21st centuries. The concept, however, has been in existence in the West for centuries. "Modernization, "westernization", and especially "industrialization" are other terms often used while discussing economic development. Economic development
Economic development
has a direct relationship with the environment and environmental issues.[further explanation needed] Whereas economic development is a policy intervention endeavor with aims of improving the economic and social well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in GDP
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