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Entrenched Clause
An entrenched clause or entrenchment clause of a basic law or constitution is a provision that makes certain amendments either more difficult or impossible to pass, making such amendments inadmissible. Overriding an entrenched clause may require a supermajority, a referendum, or the consent of the minority party. Once adopted, a properly drafted entrenchment clause makes some portion of a basic law or constitution irrevocable except through the assertion of the right of revolution. Any amendment to a basic law or constitution which would not satisfy the prerequisites enshrined in a valid entrenched clause would lead to so-called "unconstitutional constitutional law", that is, an amendment to constitutional law text that would appear to be constitutional law by its form, albeit unconstitutional due to the procedure used to enact it or due to the content of its provisions. Entrenched clauses are, in some cases, justified as protecting the rights of a minority from the dangers of majorita
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Basic Law
The term basic law is used in some places as an alternative to "constitution", implying it is a temporary but necessary measure without formal enactment of constitution. A basic law is either a codified constitution, or in countries with uncodified constitutions, a law given to have constitution powers and effect. The name is usually used to imply an interim or transitory nature, or avoid attempting a claim to being "the highest law", often for religious reasons. In West Germany
West Germany
the term "Basic Law" (Grundgesetz) was used to indicate that the Basic Law
Law
was provisional until the ultimate reunification of Germany. But in 1990 no new constitution was adopted and instead the Basic Law
Law
was adopted throughout the entire German territory
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Indian Malaysian
West coast of Peninsular Malaysia (mostly in Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Penang, Kuala Lumpur, Kedah
Kedah
and Johor)   Singapore
Singapore
(20,483 in 2010)[3]LanguagesMalay, Tamil (majority and as medium of education in Tamil schools) and English (used as a secondary language), Manglish (creole) and other Indian languages such as Malayalam, Telugu, Bengali, Punjabi, Hindi, and Sindhi [4]ReligionPredominantly Hinduism Also: Christianity · Islam · Buddhism · Sikhism · Jainism · Bahá'íRelated ethnic groupsIndian Singaporeans, Indian Indonesian, Chitty, ChindianThis article contains Tamil script. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Tamil script.This article contains Indic text
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Indonesia
Coordinates: 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic
Republic
of Indonesia Republik Indonesia  (Indonesian)FlagNational emblemMotto:  Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
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Constitution Of The Irish Free State
The Constitution of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(Irish: Bunreacht Shaorstáit Eireann) was the constitution of the Irish Free State. It was adopted by Act of Dáil Éireann sitting as a constituent assembly on 25 October 1922
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Anglo-Irish Treaty
 Irish Republic  United KingdomLanguages EnglishText of the TreatyConstitutional documents relevant to the status of the United Kingdom and legislative unions of its constituent countriesTreaty of Union 1706Acts of Union 1707Personal Union of 1714 1714Wales and Berwick Act 1746Irish Constitution 1782Acts of Union 1800Government of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1920Anglo-Irish Treaty 1921Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927N. Ireland
Ireland
(Temporary Provisions) Act 1972European Communities Act 1972Local Government Act 1972Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly 1973N. Ireland
Ireland
Constitution Act 1973Referendum Act 1975Scotland Act 1978Wales Act 1978Local Government (Wales) Act 1994Local Government etc
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Oath Of Allegiance (Ireland)
The Irish Oath of Allegiance (Irish: Mionn Dílse[1]) was a controversial provision in the Anglo-Irish Treaty
Anglo-Irish Treaty
of 1921, which Irish TDs (members of the Lower House
Lower House

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Governor-General Of The Irish Free State
The Governor-General
Governor-General
(Irish: Seanascal) was the official representative of the sovereign of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
from 1922 to 1936. By convention, the Office of Governor-General
Governor-General
was largely ceremonial. Nonetheless, it was controversial, as many nationalists saw it as offensive to republican principles and a symbol of continued Irish subservience to the United Kingdom, despite the governor-general having no connection to the British government
British government
after 1931. For this reason, the office's role was diminished over time by nationalist prime ministers and legislators. The 1931 enactment in London of the Statute of Westminster gave the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
full legislative independence. However, the Irish considered that full legislative independence had been achieved in 1922
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Seanad Éireann (Irish Free State)
Éire
Éire
(Irish: [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen)) is Irish for "Ireland", the name of an island and a sovereign state. The English pronunciation is /ˈɛərə/ (AIR-ə).Contents1 Etymology1.1 Difference between Éire
Éire
and Erin2 As a state name 3 Spelling Eire rather than Éire 4 Other uses 5 Footnotes 6 BibliographyEtymology[edit] Further information: Ériu, Erin, Hibernia, and Iverni The modern Irish Éire
Éire
evolved from the Old Irish word Ériu, which was the name of a Gaelic goddess. Ériu
Ériu
is generally believed to have been the matron goddess of Ireland, a goddess of sovereignty, or simply a goddess of the land
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Constitution Of Italy
The Constitution
Constitution
of the Italian Republic
Italian Republic
(Italian: Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against. The text, which has since been amended 15 times, was promulgated in the extraordinary edition of Gazzetta Ufficiale
Gazzetta Ufficiale
No. 298 on 27 December 1947. The Constituent Assembly was elected by universal suffrage on 2 June 1946, at the same time as a referendum on the abolition of the monarchy
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Malaysian Constitution
The Federal Constitution of Malaya, which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaya.[1] The Federation was initially called the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
(in Malay, Persekutuan Tanah Melayu) and it adopted its present name, Malaysia, when the States of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore (now independent) became part of the Federation.[2] The Constitution establishes the Federation as a constitutional monarchy having the
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Social Contract (Malaysia)
The social contract in Malaysia
Malaysia
refers to the agreement made by the country's founding fathers in the Constitution. The social contract usually refers to a quid pro quo trade-off through Articles 14–18 of the Constitution, pertaining to the granting of citizenship to the non-Bumiputera of Malaysia
Malaysia
(particularly Malaysian Chinese
Malaysian Chinese
and Indian), and Article 153, which grants the Malays special rights and privileges. The term has also been used occasionally to refer to other portions of the Constitution. In its typical context related to race relations, the social contract has been heavily criticised by many, including politicians from the ruling Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
coalition, who contend that constant harping on the non-Malays' debt to the Malays for citizenship has alienated them from the country
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Chinese Malaysian
The Malaysian Chinese
Malaysian Chinese
consist of people of full or partial Chinese—particularly Han Chinese—ancestry who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia. The great majority of this group of people are descendants of those who arrived between the early 19th century and the mid-20th century.[5][6] The Malaysian Chinese
Malaysian Chinese
population is primarily urban; socioeconomically, they are mainly a well-established middle-class ethnic group and traditionally dominate the business and commerce sectors of the Malaysian economy. Malaysian Chinese
Malaysian Chinese
form the second largest community of Overseas Chinese in the world, after Thailand. Within Malaysia, they represent the second largest ethnic group in Malaysia
Malaysia
after the ethnic Malay majority
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Malay People
Historically Hinduism, Buddhism, Nature
Nature
worship, and Animism Predominantly Sunni
Sunni
IslamRelated ethnic groupsOther Austronesian
Austronesian
peoples^ note: Highly naturalised population of mixed origins, but using the 'Malay' identityMalays (Malay: Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian
Austronesian
ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra
Sumatra
and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world
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Constitution Of Indonesia
The Constitution of Indonesia
Indonesia
(Indonesian: Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia
Indonesia
1945, UUD '45) is the basis for the government of Indonesia. The constitution was written in June, July and August 1945, when Indonesia
Indonesia
was emerging from Japanese control at the end of World War II. It was abrogated by the Federal Constitution of 1949
Federal Constitution of 1949
and the Provisional Constitution of 1950, but restored on 5 July 1959. The 1945 Constitution then set forth the Pancasila, the five nationalist principles devised by Sukarno, as the embodiment of basic principles of an independent Indonesian state. It provides for a limited separation of executive, legislative, and judicial powers
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Article 153
Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia grants the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) responsibility for “safeguard[ing] the special position of the ‘Malays’(see note) and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak and the legitimate interests of other communities” and goes on to specify ways to do this, such as establishing quotas for entry into the civil service, public scholarships and public education. Article 153 is one of the most controversial articles in the Malaysian constitution. Critics consider it to create an unnecessary and racialist distinction between Malaysians of different ethnic backgrounds, because it has led to the implementation of affirmative action policies which benefit only the Bumiputra, who comprise a majority of the population. Technically, discussing the repeal of Article 153 is illegal[1]—even in Parliament, although it was drafted as a temporary provision to the Constitution
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