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Enthalpy Of Vaporization
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. The enthalpy of vaporization is often quoted for the normal boiling temperature of the substance; although tabulated values are usually corrected to 298 K, that correction is often smaller than the uncertainty in the measured value. The heat of vaporization is temperature-dependent, though a constant heat of vaporization can be assumed for small temperature ranges and for reduced temperature T r displaystyle T_ r ≪ 1 displaystyle ll 1
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Enthalpy Of Atomization
The enthalpy of atomization (also atomisation in British spelling) is the enthalpy change that accompanies the total separation of all atoms in a chemical substance (either a chemical element or a chemical compound).[1] This is often represented by the symbol ΔatHo or ΔHato. All bonds in the compound are broken in atomization and none are formed, so enthalpies of atomization are always positive. The associated standard enthalpy is known as the Standard enthalpy
Standard enthalpy
of atomization, ΔatHo/(kJ mol−1), at 298.15 K (or 25 degrees Celsius) and 101.3 kPa. Definition[edit] Enthalpy
Enthalpy
of atomization is the amount of enthalpy change when a compound's bonds are broken and the component atoms are reduced to individual atoms. Enthalpy
Enthalpy
of atomization is denoted by the symbol ΔHa
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Compressibility
In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility[1] or isothermal compressibility[2]) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change. β = − 1 V ∂ V ∂ p displaystyle beta =- frac 1 V frac partial V partial p where V is volume and p is pressure. The minus sign makes the compressibility positive in the (usual) case that an increase in pressure induces a reduction in volume.Contents1 Definition1.1 Relation to speed of sound 1.2 Relation to bulk modulus2 Thermodynamics 3 Earth science 4 Fluid dynamics<
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Covalent Bond
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms
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Pressure
Pressure
Pressure
(symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure
Gauge pressure
(also spelled gage pressure)[a] is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit
SI unit
of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre; similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and US customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as ​1⁄760 of this
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Bond Energy
In chemistry, bond energy (E) or bond enthalpy (H) is the measure of bond strength in a chemical bond.[1] IUPAC defines bond energy as the average value of the gas-phase bond dissociation energies (usually at a temperature of 298 K) for all bonds of the same type within the same chemical species. For example, the carbon–hydrogen bond energy in methane H(C–H) is the enthalpy change involved with breaking up one molecule of methane into a carbon atom and four hydrogen radicals, divided by 4. Tabulated bond energies are generally values of bond energies averaged over a number of selected typical chemical species containing that type of bond.[2] Bond energy (E) or bond enthalpy (H) should not be confused with bond-dissociation energy. Bond energy is the average of all the bond-dissociation energies in a molecule, and will show a different value for a given bond than the bond-dissociation energy would
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Entropy
In statistical mechanics, entropy (usual symbol S) is related to the number of microscopic configurations Ω that a thermodynamic system can have when in a state as specified by some macroscopic variables. Specifically, assuming for simplicity that each of the microscopic configurations is equally probable, the entropy of the system is the natural logarithm of that number of configurations, multiplied by the Boltzmann constant
Boltzmann constant
kB. Formally, S = k B ln ⁡ Ω  (assuming equiprobable states) . displaystyle S=k_ mathrm B ln Omega text (assuming equiprobable states) . This is consistent with 19th-century formulas for entropy in terms of heat and temperature, as discussed below
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Chemical Equilibrium
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.[1] Usually, this state results when the forward reaction proceeds at the same rate as the reverse reaction. The reaction rates of the forward and backward reactions are generally not zero, but equal. Thus, there are no net changes in the concentrations of the reactant(s) and product(s)
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Gibbs Free Energy
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy
Gibbs free energy
( IUPAC
IUPAC
recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy[1] to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric). The Gibbs free energy(ΔGº = ΔHº-TΔSº) (J in SI units) is the maximum amount of non-expansion work that can be extracted from a thermodynamically closed system (one that can exchange heat and work with its surroundings, but not matter); this maximum can be attained only in a completely reversible process
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Pascal (unit)
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus
Young's modulus
and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square metre.[1] It is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa) which is equal to one millibar, and the kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa) which is equal to one centibar. The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101325 Pa.[2] Meteorological reports typically state atmospheric pressure in millibars.Contents1 Etymology 2 Definition 3 Standard units 4 Uses4.1 Hectopascal and millibar units5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The unit is named after Blaise Pascal, noted for his contributions to hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, and experiments with a barometer
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Fugacity
In chemical thermodynamics, the fugacity of a real gas is an effective partial pressure which replaces the mechanical partial pressure in an accurate computation of the chemical equilibrium constant. It is equal to the pressure of an ideal gas which has the same chemical potential as the real gas. For example, nitrogen gas (N2) at 0 °C and a pressure of P = 100 atm has a fugacity of f = 97.03 atm.[1] This means that the chemical potential of real nitrogen at a pressure of 100 atm is less than if nitrogen were an ideal gas at 100 atm. Ideal-gas nitrogen at 97.03 atm would have the same chemical potential as real nitrogen at 100 atm. Fugacities are determined experimentally or estimated from various models such as a Van der Waals gas
Van der Waals gas
that are closer to reality than an ideal gas
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Alkali Metal
Legendprimordialelement by radioactive decay Atomic number
Atomic number
color: black=solidv t eThe alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),[note 1] rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs),[note 2] and francium (Fr). This group lies in the s-block of the periodic table of elements as all alkali metals have their outermost electron in an s-orbital: this shared electron configuration results in their having very similar characteristic properties. Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of group trends in properties in the periodic table, with elements exhibiting well-characterised homologous behaviour. The alkali metals are all shiny, soft, highly reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure and readily lose their outermost electron to form cations with charge +1
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Hydrogen Fluoride
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HF. This colorless gas or liquid is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often as an aqueous solution called hydrofluoric acid. It is an important feedstock in the preparation of many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers (e.g. Teflon). HF is widely used in the petrochemical industry as a component of superacids. Hydrogen
Hydrogen
fluoride boils near room temperature, much higher than other hydrogen halides. Hydrogen
Hydrogen
fluoride is a highly dangerous gas, forming corrosive and penetrating hydrofluoric acid upon contact with moisture. The gas can also cause blindness by rapid destruction of the corneas. French chemist Edmond Frémy
Edmond Frémy
(1814–1894) is credited with discovering anhydrous hydrogen fluoride while trying to isolate fluorine
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Group 3 Element
* Whether the elements lutetium (Lu) and lawrencium (Lr), in period 6 and 7, are in group 3 is disputed. The grouping used in this article places La and Ac in group 3, which is the most common form. For other groupings, see group 3 borders.Legendprimordial elementsynthetic element Atomic number
Atomic number
color:black=solidv t eGroup 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table. This group, like other d-block groups, should contain four elements, but it is not agreed what elements belong in the group. Scandium
Scandium
(Sc) and yttrium (Y) are always included, but the other two spaces are usually occupied by lanthanum (La) and actinium (Ac), or by lutetium (Lu) and lawrencium (Lr); less frequently, it is considered the group should be expanded to 32 elements (with all the lanthanides and actinides included) or contracted to contain only scandium and yttrium
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Group 4 Element
Group 4 is a group of elements in the periodic table. It contains the elements titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf) and rutherfordium (Rf). This group lies in the d-block of the periodic table. The group itself has not acquired a trivial name; it belongs to the broader grouping of the transition metals. The three Group 4 elements that occur naturally are titanium, zirconium and hafnium. The first three members of the group share similar properties; all three are hard refractory metals under standard conditions. However, the fourth element rutherfordium (Rf), has been synthesized in the laboratory; none of its isotopes have been found occurring in nature. All isotopes of rutherfordium are radioactive
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