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Enterobacter
E. aerogenes E. amnigenus E. agglomerans E. arachidis E. asburiae E. cancerogenous E. cloacae E. cowanii E. dissolvens E. gergoviae E. helveticus E. hormaechei E. intermedius E. kobei E. ludwigii E. mori E. nimipressuralis E. oryzae E. pulveris E. pyrinus E. radicincitans E. taylorae E. turicensis E. sakazakii Enterobacter
Enterobacter
soli SYNONYMS Cloaca Castellani & Chalmers, 1919 Aerobacter Hormaeche "> * ^ Tan, Wen-Si; Muhamad Yunos, Nina Yusrina; Tan, Pui-Wan; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan (13 June 2014). "Freshwater-Borne Bacteria
Bacteria
Isolated from a Malaysian Rainforest Waterfall Exhibiting Quorum Sensing Properties". Sensors. 14 (6): 10527–10537. doi :10.3390/s140610527 . * ^ A B Cabral, JPS (2010). "Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water." . Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 7 (10): 3657–3703
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Infection
INFECTION is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease -causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. INFECTIOUS DISEASE, also known as TRANSMISSIBLE DISEASE or COMMUNICABLE DISEASE, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses , viroids , prions , bacteria , nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms , arthropods such as ticks , mites , fleas , and lice , fungi such as ringworm , and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths . Hosts can fight infections using their immune system . Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation , followed by an adaptive response
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Β-Lactam Antibiotic
β-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS (BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS) are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics , consisting of all antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structures. This includes penicillin derivatives (penams ), cephalosporins (cephems ), monobactams , and carbapenems . Most β-lactam antibiotics work by inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis in the bacterial organism and are the most widely used group of antibiotics. Until 2003, when measured by sales, more than half of all commercially available antibiotics in use were β-lactam compounds. Bacteria
Bacteria
often develop resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by synthesizing a β-lactamase , an enzyme that attacks the β-lactam ring. To overcome this resistance, β-lactam antibiotics are often given with β-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid
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Quinolone Antibiotic
A QUINOLONE ANTIBIOTIC is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone . They are used in human and veterinary medicine to treat bacterial infections , as well as in animal husbandry. Nearly all quinolone antibiotics in modern use are FLUOROQUINOLONES, which contain a fluorine atom in their chemical structure and are effective against both Gram-negative
Gram-negative
and Gram-positive bacteria. One example is ciprofloxacin (Cipro), one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide
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Respiratory Tract
In humans, the RESPIRATORY TRACT is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration . Air is breathed in through the nose or the mouth. In the nasal cavity , a layer of mucous membrane acts as a filter and traps pollutants and other harmful substances found in the air. Next, air moves into the pharynx , a passage that contains the intersection between the esophagus and the larynx . The opening of the larynx has a special flap of cartilage, the epiglottis , that opens to allow air to pass through but closes to prevent food from moving into the passageway. From the larynx, air moves into the trachea and down to the intersection that branches to form the right and left primary (main) bronchi
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Mechanical Ventilation
A) Endotracheal tube, which sits in the trachea. B) Inflatable Cuff, which facilitates the inflation of the balloon at the end of the tube to allow it to sit securely in the airway. The balloon can also be deflated via this cuff upon extubation. C) Trachea D) Esophagus
Esophagus
ICD-9 93.90 96.7 MESH D012121 OPS-301 CODE 8-71MECHANICAL VENTILATION is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing . This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an Anesthesiologist , certified registered nurse anesthetist , physician , physician assistant , respiratory therapist , paramedic , or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows
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Pathogen
In biology , a PATHOGEN (Greek : πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease ; the term came into use in the 1880s. Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus , bacterium , protozoa , prion , a fungus , or other micro-organism. There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen. Diseases caused by organisms in humans are known as pathogenic diseases
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Opportunistic Infection
An OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria , viruses , fungi , or protozoa ) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system , an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut flora ), or breached integumentary barriers. Many of these pathogens do not cause disease in a healthy host that has a normal immune system. However, a compromised immune system, a penetrating injury , or a lack of competition from normal commensals presents an opportunity for the pathogen to infect
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Obesity
OBESITY is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 7002294199500000000♠30 kg /m2 , with the range 7002245166250000000♠25–30 kg /m2 defined as overweight . Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions , particularly cardiovascular diseases , type 2 diabetes , obstructive sleep apnea , certain types of cancer , osteoarthritis and depression . Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake , lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility . A few cases are caused primarily by genes , endocrine disorders , medications , or mental disorder
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Insulin Resistance
INSULIN RESISTANCE (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin . The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy , and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. When the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar . Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often remains undetected and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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Wikispecies
WIKISPECIES is a wiki -based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation . Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species ; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public. Jimmy Wales
Jimmy Wales
stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies
Wikispecies
is available under the GNU Free Documentation License
GNU Free Documentation License
and CC BY-SA 3.0 . Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to articles on individual species by April 2005
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML
XML
structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez
Entrez
search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge
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Inflammation
INFLAMMATION (from Latin inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens , damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells , blood vessels , and molecular mediators. The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and to initiate tissue repair. The classical signs of inflammation are heat, pain, redness, swelling, and loss of function . Inflammation
Inflammation
is a generic response, and therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity , as compared to adaptive immunity , which is specific for each pathogen. Too little inflammation could lead to progressive tissue destruction by the harmful stimulus (e.g. bacteria) and compromise the survival of the organism
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