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Enmerkar
ENMERKAR (Sumerian : 𒂗𒈨𒅕𒃸 EN .me.er.kar2) is a legendary king listed as the builder of the Sumerian city of Uruk
Uruk
. He was said to have reigned for "420 years"; some copies read "900 years". The king list adds that Enmerkar
Enmerkar
became king after his father Mesh-ki-ang-gasher , son of Utu
Utu
, had "entered the sea and disappeared." Enmerkar
Enmerkar
is also known from a few other Sumerian legends, most notably Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta , where a previous confusion of the languages of mankind is mentioned. In this account, it is Enmerkar
Enmerkar
himself who is called 'the son of Utu' (the Sumerian sun god)
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Adad
HADAD (Ugaritic : 𐎅𐎄𐎆 Haddu), ADAD, HADDAD (Akkadian ) or IšKUR (Sumerian ) was the storm and rain god in the Northwest Semitic and ancient Mesopotamian religions . He was attested in Ebla
Ebla
as "Hadda" in c. 2500 BCE. From the Levant , Hadad
Hadad
was introduced to Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
by the Amorites
Amorites
, where he became known as the Akkadian (Assyrian -Babylonian ) god Adad. Adad
Adad
and Iškur are usually written with the logogram 𒀭𒅎 d IM —the same symbol used for the Hurrian god Teshub
Teshub
. Hadad
Hadad
was also called "Pidar", "Rapiu", "Baal-Zephon", or often simply Baʿal (LORD), but this title was also used for other gods. The bull was the symbolic animal of Hadad. He appeared bearded, often holding a club and thunderbolt while wearing a bull-horned headdress
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Isimud
ISIMUD (also ISINU; Usmû; USUMU (Akkadian )) is a minor god , the messenger of the god, Enki , in Sumerian mythology . In ancient Sumerian artwork, Isimud
Isimud
is easily identifiable due to the fact that he is always depicted with two faces facing in opposite directions in a way that is similar to the ancient Roman god, Janus
Janus
. MYTHOLOGY Isimud
Isimud
appears in the legend of Inanna and Enki, in which he is the one who greets Inanna upon her arrival to the E- Abzu temple in Eridu . He also is the one who informs Enki that the mes have been stolen. In the myth, Isimud
Isimud
also serves as a messenger, telling Inanna to return the mes to Enki or face the consequences. Isimud
Isimud
plays a similar role to Ninshubur , Inanna's sukkal
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Ninshubur
NINSHUBUR (also known as NINSHUBAR, NINCUBURA or NINšUBUR) was the sukkal or second-in-command of the goddess Inanna in Sumerian mythology . Her name means "Queen of the East" in ancient Sumerian . Much like Iris or Hermes
Hermes
in later Greek mythology
Greek mythology
, Ninshubur
Ninshubur
served as a messenger to the other gods. Ninshubur
Ninshubur
accompanied Inanna as a vassal and friend throughout Inanna's many exploits. She helped Inanna fight Enki 's demons after Inanna's theft of the sacred me . Later, when Inanna became trapped in the Underworld , it was Ninshubur
Ninshubur
who pleaded with Enki for her mistress's release
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Geshtinanna
GESHTINANNA (also known as GEšTINANNA or NGESHTIN-ANA) is a goddess in Sumerian mythology , the so-called "heavenly grape-vine". She is the sister of Dumuzid and consort of Ningisida . She is also the daughter of Enki
Enki
and Ninhursag . Geshtinanna
Geshtinanna
plays a major role in the Sumerian myth of the death and return of Dumuzid. CONTENTS * 1 Worship * 2 Mythology * 2.1 The Dream of Dumuzid * 2.2 The Return of Dumuzid * 3 References * 3.1 Citations * 3.2 Bibliography * 4 External links WORSHIP Geshtinanna
Geshtinanna
is first attested in texts from the Early Dynastic IIIb Era. Her main cult centers were the cities of Nippur
Nippur
, Isin
Isin
, and Uruk . She continued to be worshipped throughout the Akkadian Period, but her cult seems to have disappeared during the Old Babylonian Era
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Ashnan
ASHNAN was the goddess of grain in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
. She and her brother Lahar , both children of Enlil
Enlil
, were created by the gods to provide the Annunaki with food, but when the heavenly creatures were found unable to make use of their products, humankind was created to provide an outlet for their services. SEE ALSO * Debate between sheep and grain REFERENCES * ^ Samuel Noah Kramer (1964). The Sumerians: their history, culture and character. University of Chicago Press. pp. 220–. ISBN 978-0-226-45238-8 . Retrieved 23 May 2011. Michael Jordan, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002 This article relating to a myth or legend from the ancient Middle East is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Bel (mythology)
BEL (/ˈbeɪl/ ; from Akkadian bēlu), signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in the Mesopotamian religion of Akkad , Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia
Babylonia
. The feminine form is Belit 'Lady, Mistress'. Bel is represented in Greek as BELOS and in Latin
Latin
as BELUS. Linguistically Bel is an East Semitic
East Semitic
form cognate with Northwest Semitic Baal with the same meaning. Early translators of Akkadian believed that the ideogram for the god called in Sumerian Enlil
Enlil
was to be read as Bel in Akkadian. This is now known to be incorrect; but one finds Bel used in referring to Enlil
Enlil
in older translations and discussions
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Asaruludu
In Sumerian and Akkadian mythology ASARULUDU is one of the Anunnaku . His name is also spelled ASARLUDU, ASARLUHI, and NAMSHUB. As Namshub (shining), he is considered a protective deity, "the shining god that illuminates our path". The Enuma Elish describes Asaruludu
Asaruludu
as "the light of the gods". Another version states he is "the wielder of the flaming sword" and "ensures the most perfect safety". SEE ALSO * Kuara * Marduk
Marduk
FURTHER READING * Helmut Freydank et al.: Lexikon Alter Orient. Ägypten * Indien * China * Vorderasien. VMA-Verlag, Wiesbaden 1997, ISBN 3-928127-40-3 * Brigitte Groneberg: Die Götter des Zweistromlandes. Kulte, Mythen, Epen
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Agasaya
AGASAYA, "The Shrieker," was a Semitic war goddess who was merged into Ishtar
Ishtar
in her identity as warrior of the sky. This article relating to a myth or legend from the ancient Middle East is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Ancient Mesopotamian Religion
MESOPOTAMIAN RELIGION refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, particularly Sumer
Sumer
, Akkad , Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia
Babylonia
between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity
Syriac Christianity
. A few traces remained among Assyrian communities in isolated pockets of what had been Assyria
Assyria
until the 10th century AD, with the very latest attestation being found in this region in the 16th century AD
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Enbilulu
ENBILULU (Sumerian : 𒀭𒂗𒁉𒇻𒇻 d EN -bi.lu.lu) was the god of rivers and canals in Mesopotamian mythology . In the creation mythology he was placed in charge of the sacred rivers Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates
Euphrates
by the god Enki . Also he was the deity of irrigation and farming . In the Sumerian story Enlil
Enlil
and Ninlil he is a son of Enlil and Ninlil . In Babylonian times he becomes the son of Ea and is connected with Adad
Adad
. In the Enuma Elish Enbilulu
Enbilulu
is said to "know the secrets of water" and "of the running of rivers below the earth". Another version calls him "The Lord who makes all things flourish" who regulates for the land the grazing and watering places, who opened the wells and thereby apportioned the waters of abundance
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Lahar (god)
LAHAR was the Sumerian cattle-god or goddess sent by Enlil
Enlil
and Enki from the sky down to earth in order to make abundant its cattle. He is the brother of Ashnan
Ashnan
. Lahar, along with his sister, was created in the creation chamber of the gods so the Anunnaki
Anunnaki
might have food and clothes. REFERENCES * ^ Samuel Noah Kramer (1964). The Sumerians: their history, culture and character. University of Chicago Press. pp. 220–. ISBN 978-0-226-45238-8 . Retrieved 23 May 2011. Michael Jordan, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002 Patricia Turner and Charles Russell Coulter, Dictionary of Ancient Deities, 2000 This article relating to a myth or legend from the ancient Middle East is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Mami (goddess)
MAMI is a goddess in the Babylonian epic Atra-Hasis and in other creation legends. She was probably synonymous with Ninhursag . She was involved in the creation of humankind from clay and blood. As Nintu legends states she pinched off fourteen pieces of primordial clay which she formed into womb deities, seven on the left and seven on the right with a brick between them, who produced the first seven pairs of human embryos. She may have become BELET ILI ("Mistress of the Gods") when, at Enki 's suggestion, the gods slew one among themselves and used that god's blood and flesh, mixed with clay, to create humankind. Also known as BELET-ILI, or NINTU. Alternative forms of her name include MAMA and MAMMITUM. REFERENCES * ^ Dalley, Stephanie (2009). Myths from Mesopotamia. England: Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0199538360 . This article relating to a myth or legend from the ancient Middle East is a stub
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Nusku
NUSKU was the name of the light and fire-god in Babylonia and Assyria , indistinguishable from Girru - formerly Gibil . Nusku
Nusku
is the symbol of the heavenly as well as of the terrestrial fire. As the former he is the son of Anu , the god of heaven, but he is likewise associated with Enlil
Enlil
of Nippur as the god of the earth and regarded as his first-born son. A centre of his cult in Assyria was in Harran
Harran
, where, because of the predominance of the moon-cult, he is viewed as the son of the moongod Sin , though Nusku
Nusku
was with Enlil
Enlil
when Sin wasn't born yet, and Enlil
Enlil
hadn't married Ninlil - Sin's mother. Nusku
Nusku
is by the side of Ea , the god of water, the great purifier
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Sarpanit
In Babylonian religion
Babylonian religion
, SARPANIT (alternately SARPANITU, ZARPANIT, ZARPANDIT, ZERPANITUM, ZERBANITU, or ZIRBANIT) is a mother goddess and the consort of the chief god, Marduk
Marduk
. Her name means "the shining one", and she is sometimes associated with the planet Venus. By a play on words her name was interpreted as zēr-bānītu, or "creatress of seed", and is thereby associated with the goddess Aruru , who, according to Babylonian myth, created mankind. Her marriage with Marduk
Marduk
was celebrated annually at New Year in Babylon
Babylon
. She was worshipped via the rising moon , and was often depicted as being pregnant. She is also known as ERUA. She may be the same as Gamsu, Ishtar
Ishtar
, and/or Bêlit
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Adapa
ADAPA, the first of the Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
seven sages (apkallu ), was a mythical figure who unknowingly refused the gift of immortality . The story is first attested in the Kassite period (14th century BC), in fragmentary tablets from Tell el-Amarna , and from Assur , of the late second millennium BC. Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
myth tells of seven antediluvian sages, who were sent by Ea , the wise god of Eridu , to bring the arts of civilisation to humankind. The first of these, Adapa, also known as Uan, the name given as Oannes by Berossus , introduced the practice of the correct rites of religious observance as priest of the E'Apsu temple, at Eridu
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