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Enmerkar
Enmerkar
Enmerkar
(Sumerian: 𒂗𒈨𒅕𒃸 EN.me.er.kar2) is a legendary king listed as the builder of the Sumerian city of Uruk. He was said to have reigned for "420 years"; some copies read "900 years". The king list adds that Enmerkar
Enmerkar
became king after his father Mesh-ki-ang-gasher, son of Utu, had "entered the sea and disappeared." Enmerkar
Enmerkar
is also known from a few other Sumerian legends, most notably Enmerkar
Enmerkar
and the Lord of Aratta, where a previous confusion of the languages of mankind is mentioned. In this account, it is Enmerkar himself who is called 'the son of Utu' (the Sumerian sun god)
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Adad
Hadad
Hadad
(Ugaritic: 𐎅𐎄 Haddu), Adad, Haddad
Haddad
(Akkadian) or Iškur (Sumerian) was the storm and rain god in the Northwest Semitic and ancient Mesopotamian religions. He was attested in Ebla
Ebla
as "Hadda" in c. 2500 BCE.[1][2] From the Levant, Hadad
Hadad
was introduced to Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
by the Amorites, where he became known as the Akkadian (Assyrian-Babylonian) god Adad.[3][4][5][6] Adad
Adad
and Iškur are usually written with the logogram 𒀭𒅎 dIM[7]—the same symbol used for the Hurrian god Teshub.[8] Hadad
Hadad
was also called "Pidar", "Rapiu", "Baal-Zephon",[9] or often simply Baʿal
Baʿal
(Lord), but this title was also used for other gods. The bull was the symbolic animal of Hadad
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Ereshkigal
In Mesopotamian mythology, Ereshkigal
Ereshkigal
(𒀭𒊩𒆠 𒃲
𒃲
DEREŠ.KI.GAL, lit. "Queen of the Great Earth") was the goddess of Kur, the land of the dead or underworld in Sumerian mythology. In later East Semitic myths she was said to rule Irkalla
Irkalla
alongside her husband Nergal. Sometimes her name is given as Irkalla, similar to the way the name Hades
Hades
was used in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
for both the underworld and its ruler, and sometimes it is given as Ninkigal, lit. "Great Lady of the Earth" or "Lady of the Great Earth". In Sumerian myths, Ereshkigal
Ereshkigal
was the only one who could pass judgment and give laws in her kingdom
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Isimud
Isimud
Isimud
(also Isinu; Usmû;[1] Usumu (Akkadian)) is a minor god, the messenger of the god Enki, in Sumerian mythology.[2] In ancient Sumerian artwork, Isimud
Isimud
is easily identifiable because he is always depicted with t
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Anunnaki
The Anunnaki
Anunnaki
(also transcribed as Anunaki, Anunna, Ananaki, and other variations) are a group of deities that appear in the mythological traditions of the ancient Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, and Babylonians.[4] Descriptions of how many Anunnaki
Anunnaki
there were and what role they fulfilled are inconsistent and often contradictory. In the earliest Sumerian writings about them, which come from the Post-Akkadian period, the Anunnaki
Anunnaki
are the most powerful deities in the pantheon, descendants of An, the god of the heavens, and their primary function is to decree the fates of humanity. In Inanna's Descent into the Netherworld, the Anunnaki
Anunnaki
are portrayed as seven judges who sit before the throne of Ereshkigal
Ereshkigal
in the Underworld. Later Akkadian texts, such as The Epic of Gilgamesh, follow this portrayal
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Ninshubur
Ninshubur
Ninshubur
(also known as Ninshubar, Nincubura or Ninšubur) was the sukkal or second-in-command of the goddess Inanna
Inanna
in Sumerian mythology. Her name means "Queen of the East" in ancient Sumerian. Much like Iris or Hermes
Hermes
in later Greek mythology, Ninshubur
Ninshubur
served as a messenger to the other gods. Ninshubur
Ninshubur
accompanied Inanna
Inanna
as a vassal and friend throughout Inanna's many exploits. She helped Inanna
Inanna
fight Enki's demons after Inanna's theft of the sacred me
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Enlil
Enlil,[a] later known as Elil, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of wind, air, earth, and storms.[3] He is first attested as the chief deity of the Sumerian pantheon,[4] but he was later worshipped by the Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Hurrians. Enlil's primary center of worship was the Ekur
Ekur
temple in the city of Nippur, which was believed to have been built by Enlil
Enlil
himself and was regarded as the "mooring-rope" of heaven and earth. He is also sometimes referred to in Sumerian texts as Nunamnir. According to one Sumerian hymn, Enlil himself was so holy that not even the other gods could look upon him. Enlil
Enlil
rose to prominence during the twenty-fourth century BC with the rise of Nippur
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Geshtinanna
Geshtinanna
Geshtinanna
(also known as Geštinanna or Ngeshtin-ana) is the ancient Sumerian goddess of agriculture, fertility, and dream interpretation, the so-called "heavenly grape-vine". She is the sister of Dumuzid and consort of Ningisida. She is also the daughter of Enki
Enki
and Ninhursag. She shelters her brother when he is being pursued by galla demons and mourns his death after the demons drag him to Kur. She eventually agrees to take his place in Kur
Kur
for half the year, allowing him to return to Heaven
Heaven
to be with Inanna
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Lahar (god)
Lahar was the Sumerian cattle-god or goddess sent by Enlil
Enlil
and Enki from the sky down to earth in order to make abundant its cattle. He is the brother of Ashnan. Lahar, along with his sister, was created in the creation chamber of the gods so the Anunnaki
Anunnaki
might have food and clothes.[1] References[edit]^ Samuel Noah Kramer (1964). The Sumerians: their history, culture and character. University of Chicago Press. pp. 220–. ISBN 978-0-226-45238-8. Retrieved 23 May 2011. Michael Jordan, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002 Patricia Turner and Charles Russell Coulter, Dictionary of Ancient Deities, 2000This article relating to a myth or legend from the ancient Middle East is a stub
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Agasaya
Agasaya, "The Shrieker," was a Semitic war goddess who was merged into Ishtar
Ishtar
in her identity as warrior of the sky.This article relating to a myth or legend from the ancient Middle East is a stub
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Asaruludu
In Sumerian and Akkadian mythology
Akkadian mythology
Asaruludu
Asaruludu
is one of the Anunnaku. His name is also spelled Asarludu, Asarluhi, and Namshub. As Namshub (shining), he is considered a protective deity, "the shining god that illuminates our path". The Enuma Elish
Enuma Elish
describes Asaruludu
Asaruludu
as "the light of the gods". Another version states he is "the wielder of the flaming sword" and "ensures the most perfect safety". See also[edit]Kuara MardukFurther reading[edit]Helmut Freydank et al.: Lexikon Alter Orient. Ägypten * Indien * China * Vorderasien. VMA-Verlag, Wiesbaden 1997, ISBN 3-928127-40-3 Brigitte Groneberg: Die Götter des Zweistromlandes. Kulte, Mythen, Epen. Artemis & Winkler, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-7608-2306-8.This article relating to a myth or legend from the ancient Middle East is a stub
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Ashnan
Ashnan
Ashnan
was the goddess of grain in Mesopotamia. She and her brother Lahar, both children of Enlil, were created by the gods to provide the Annunaki
Annunaki
with food, but when the heavenly creatures were found unable to make use of their products, humankind was created to provide an outlet for their services.[1] See also[edit]Debate between sheep and grainReferences[edit]^ Samuel Noah Kramer (1964). The Sumerians: their history, culture and character. University of Chicago Press. pp. 220–. ISBN 978-0-226-45238-8. Retrieved 23 May 2011. Michael Jordan, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002This article relating to a myth or legend from the ancient Middle East is a stub
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Bel (mythology)
Bel (/ˈbeɪl/; from Akkadian bēlu), signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in the Mesopotamian religion
Mesopotamian religion
of Akkad, Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia. The feminine form is Belit 'Lady, Mistress'. Bel is represented in Greek as Belos and in Latin
Latin
as Belus. Linguistically Bel is an East Semitic form cognate with Northwest Semitic
Northwest Semitic
Baal
Baal
with the same meaning. Early translators of Akkadian believed that the ideogram for the god called in Sumerian Enlil
Enlil
was to be read as Bel in Akkadian
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Ancient Mesopotamian Religion
Mesopotamian religion
Mesopotamian religion
refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia
Babylonia
between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity. The religious development of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Mesopotamian culture in general was not particularly influenced by the movements of the various peoples into and throughout the area, particularly the south. Rather, Mesopotamian religion was a consistent and coherent tradition which adapted to the internal needs of its adherents over millennia of development.[1] The earliest undercurrents of Mesopotamian religious thought date to the mid 4th millennium BC, and involved the worship of forces of nature as providers of sustenance
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Enbilulu
Enbilulu
Enbilulu
(Sumerian: 𒀭𒂗𒁉𒇻𒇻 dEN-bi.lu.lu) was the god of rivers and canals in Mesopotamian mythology. In the creation mythology he was placed in charge of the sacred rivers Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates
Euphrates
by the god Enki. Also he was the deity of irrigation and farming. In the Sumerian story Enlil
Enlil
and Ninlil
Ninlil
he is a son of Enlil
Enlil
and Ninlil. In Babylonian times he becomes the son of Ea and is connected with Adad. In the Enuma Elish
Enuma Elish
Enbilulu
Enbilulu
is said to "know the secrets of water" and "of the running of rivers below the earth"
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Mamitu
Mamitu, also known as Mammetun, Mammetum, or Mammitu was the ancient Akkadian goddess of fate and destiny. She was believed to reside in Irkalla
Irkalla
and decree the fates of all human beings based on arbitrary whims. Nonetheless, whatever decrees she issued were irrevocable.[1] She was also worshipped as goddess of the oath, later a chthonic goddess of fate and a judge in the underworld, similar to the Anunnaki.[citation needed] She is occasionally regarded as a consort of Nergal.[citation needed] In some passages, she is also known as a demon of irrevocable curses.[citation needed] References[edit]^ Mark, Joshua J. "The Mesopotamian Pantheon". ancient.eu. Ancient History Encyclopedia
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