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English As A Second Language
English as a second or foreign language
English as a second or foreign language
is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. Instruction for English-language learners may be known as English as a second language (ESL), English as a foreign language (EFL), English as an additional language (EAL), or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL). English as a foreign language (EFL) is used for non-native English speakers learning English in a country where English is not commonly spoken. That environment may be a country in which English is the mother tongue (e.g., Australia, the U.S.) or one in which English has an established role (e.g., India, Nigeria). Also known as English for speakers of other languages. The
The
term ESL
ESL
has been seen by some to indicate that English would be of secondary importance. For example, where English is used as a Lingua Franca in a multilingual country
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ESL (other)
ESL
ESL
is a common abbreviation for English as a Second Language. ESL
ESL
may also refer to:Contents1 Places1.1 Geography 1.2 Structures2 Art, entertainment, and media2.1 Music3 Medicine 4 Enterprises and organizations 5 Language 6 Sport 7 Technology conceptsPlaces[edit] Geography[edit] ESL
ESL
is an abbreviation for East St
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Mother Tongue
A first language, native language or mother/father tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth[1] or within the critical period. In some countries, the term native language or mother tongue refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language.[2] Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual
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Braj Kachru
Braj Bihari Kachru (15 May 1932 – 29 July 2016) was an Indian linguist. He was Jubilee Professor of Linguistics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.[1] He coined the term "World English" and also published studies on the Kashmiri language.Contents1 Personal 2 Career2.1 Scholar and educationist 2.2 Writer and author3 The circles of English 4 Bibliography 5 References 6 External linksPersonal[edit] Braj Bihari Kachru was born on 15 May 1932 in Srinagar, Kashmir into a Kashmiri Pandit
Kashmiri Pandit
family. His father, Pandit Damodar Das Kachru was an educator. His mother, Sati, died when he was five years old. Braj's father was also known as Lala Sahab and was a friend of Kashmiri poet and writer Zinda Kaul Masterji. Lala Sahab and his friends and colleagues had discussions on politics, literature and philosophy at his house
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Literate
Literacy
Literacy
is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write .[1] The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture.[2] The concept of literacy is expanding in OECD
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First Language
A first language, native language or mother/father tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth[1] or within the critical period. In some countries, the term native language or mother tongue refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language.[2] Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual
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English-speaking World
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.[1] The United States
United States
has the most native speakers at 258 million. Additionally, there are 60 million native English speakers in the United Kingdom, 19 million in Canada, 16.5 million in Australia, 4.5 million in Ireland, and 3.8 million in New Zealand. Other countries also use English as their primary and official languages. English is the third largest language by number of native speakers, after Mandarin and Spanish.[2] Estimates that include second language speakers vary greatly, from 470 million to more than 1 billion
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Refugee
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition). Such a person may be called an asylum seeker until granted refugee status by the contracting state or the UNHCR[2] if they formally make a claim for asylum.[3] The lead international agency coordinating refugee protection is the United Nations
United Nations
Office of the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
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Immigrant
Immigration
Immigration
is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.[1][2][3] As for economic effects, research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. Research, with few exceptions, finds that immigration on average has positive economic effects on the native population, but is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67 and 147 percent
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Commonwealth Of Nations
The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations[2] (formerly the British Commonwealth),[3][1] also known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.[4] The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
operates by intergovernmental consensus of the member states, organised through the Commonwealth Secretariat and non-governmental organisations, organised through the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
Foundation.[5] The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
dates back to the mid-20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire
British Empire
through increased self-governance of its territories
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Philippines
Coordinates: 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122 Republic
Republic
of the Philippines Republika ng PilipinasFlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"[1] "For God, People, Nature, and Country"Anthem: Lupang Hinirang Chosen LandGreat SealDakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas  (Tagalog) Great Seal of the PhilippinesCapital Manilaa 14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583°N 120.967°E / 14.583; 120.967Largest city
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Official Language
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used within government (e.g., courts, parliament, administration).[1] Since "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law",[2] the term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government.[3] Worldwide, 178 countries have at least one official language, and 101 of these countries recognise more than one language. Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages.[4][5] Some countries use the official language designation to empower indigenous groups by giving them access to the government in their native languages
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Limited English Proficiency
Limited English proficiency
Limited English proficiency
(LEP) is a term used in the United States that refers to a person who is not fluent in the English language, often because it is not their native language. Both LEP and English-language learner (ELL) are terms used by the Office for Civil Rights, a sub-agency of the U.S. Department of Education. According to data collected from the U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
and Census Bureau American Community Survey
American Community Survey
(ACS) data, LEP individuals accounted for 9% of the U.S
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Curriculum
In education, a curriculum (/kəˈrɪkjʊləm/; plural: curricula /kəˈrɪkjʊlə/ or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process.[1][2] The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's instructional goals
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U.S. Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of the United States
United States
(sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[2]) is the highest federal court of the United States. Established pursuant to Article Three of the United States Constitution in 1789, it has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and state court cases involving issues of federal law plus original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is generally the final interpreter of federal law including the United States
United States
Constitution, but it may act only within the context of a case in which it has jurisdiction
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Citizenship
Citizenship
Citizenship
is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation. A person may have multiple citizenships and a person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless. Nationality
Nationality
is often used as a synonym for citizenship in English[1] – notably in international law – although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a person's membership of a nation (a large ethnic group).[2] In some countries, e.g
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