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English Reformation
The English Reformation
Reformation
was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England
Church of England
broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. These events were, in part, associated with the wider process of the European Protestant Reformation, a religious and political movement that affected the practice of Christianity
Christianity
across western and central Europe during this period. Many factors contributed to the process: the decline of feudalism and the rise of nationalism, the rise of the common law, the invention of the printing press and increased circulation of the Bible, and the transmission of new knowledge and ideas among scholars, the upper and middle classes and readers in general
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Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (/joʊˈhɑːnɪs ˈɡuːtənˌbɜːrɡ, -ˈhænɪs-/ yoh-HA(H)N-iss GOO-tən-burg;[1] c. 1400[2] – February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press. His introduction of mechanical movable type printing to Europe started the Printing
Printing
Revolution and is regarded as a milestone of the second millennium, ushering in the modern period of human history.[3] It played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses.[4] Gutenberg in 1439 was the first European to use movable type
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Luther Bible
The Luther Bible
Bible
(German: Lutherbibel) is a German language
German language
Bible translation from Hebrew and ancient Greek by Martin Luther
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Propaganda During The Reformation
Propaganda
Propaganda
during the Reformation, helped by the spread of the printing press throughout Europe and in particular within Germany, caused new ideas, thoughts, and doctrine to be made available to the public in ways that had never been seen before the sixteenth century. The printing press was invented in approximately 1450 and quickly spread to other major cities around Europe; by the time the Reformation
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Erasmus
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalv t eDesiderius Erasmus
Erasmus
Roterodamus (/ˌdɛzɪˈdɪəriəs ɪˈræzməs/; 28 October 1466[1][2] – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus
Erasmus
or Erasmus of Rotterdam,[note 1] was a Dutch Renaissance
Renaissance
humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian. Erasmus
Erasmus
was a classical scholar and wrote in a pure Latin style. Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists", and has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists".[3] Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament, which raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
and Catholic Counter-Reformation
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Printing Press
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in which the cloth, paper or other medium was brushed or rubbed repeatedly to achieve the transfer of ink, and accelerated the process. Typically used for texts, the invention and global spread of the printing press was one of the most influential events in the second millennium.[1][2] Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed, circa 1439, a printing system by adapting existing technologies to printing purposes, as well as making inventions of his own. Printing
Printing
in East Asia had been prevalent since the Tang dynasty,[3][4] and in Europe, woodblock printing based on existing screw presses was common by the 14th century
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German Mysticism
German mysticism, sometimes called Dominican mysticism or Rhineland mysticism, was a late medieval Christian mystical movement that was especially prominent within the Dominican order
Dominican order
and in Germany. Although its origins can be traced back to Hildegard of Bingen, it is mostly represented by Meister Eckhart, Johannes Tauler, and Henry Suso. Other notable figures include Rulman Merswin
Rulman Merswin
and Margaretha Ebner, and the Friends of God. This movement often seems to stand in stark contrast with scholasticism and German Theology, but the relationship between scholasticism and German mysticism
German mysticism
is debated. Viewed as a predecessor of the reformation, the contrast becomes very apparent
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Johann Reuchlin
Johann Reuchlin
Johann Reuchlin
(sometimes called Johannes; 29 January 1455 – 30 June 1522) was a German-born humanist and a scholar of Greek and Hebrew, whose work also took him to modern-day Austria, Switzerland, and Italy
Italy
and France
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Humanism
Humanism
Humanism
is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it.[1] The term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century to refer to a system of education based on the study of classical literature ("classical humanism")
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Northern Renaissance
The Northern Renaissance
Renaissance
was the Renaissance
Renaissance
that occurred in Europe north of the Alps. Before 1497, Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism had little influence outside Italy. From the late 15th century, its ideas spread around Europe. This influenced the German Renaissance, French Renaissance, English Renaissance, Renaissance
Renaissance
in the Low Countries, Polish Renaissance
Renaissance
and other national and localized movements, each with different characteristics and strengths. In France, King Francis I imported Italian art, commissioned Venetian artists (including Leonardo da Vinci), and built grand palaces at great expense, starting the French Renaissance
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Avignon Papacy
The Avignon
Avignon
Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon
Avignon
(then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in France) rather than in Rome.[1] The situation arose from the conflict between the papacy and the French crown, culminating in the death of Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII after his arrest and maltreatment by Philip IV of France. Following the further death of Pope
Pope
Benedict XI, Philip forced a deadlocked conclave to elect the French Clement V, as Pope
Pope
in 1305. Clement V declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years
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Theodore Beza
Theodore Beza
Theodore Beza
(Latin: Theodorus Beza; French: Théodore de Bèze or de Besze; June 24, 1519 – October 13, 1605) was a French Protestant Christian
Christian
theologian and scholar who played an important role in the Reformation. He was a disciple of John Calvin
John Calvin
and lived most of his life in Geneva.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Teacher at Lausanne 1.3 Journeys on behalf of the Protestants 1.4 Settles in Geneva 1.5 Events of 1560–63 1.6 Calvin's successor 1.7 Course of events after 1564 1.8 The Colloquy of Montbéliard 1.9 Last days2 Literary works2.1 Humanistic and historical writings 2.2 Theological works 2.3 Beza's Greek New Testament3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Theodore Beza
Theodore Beza
was born at Vézelay, in Burgundy, France
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William Farel
William Farel
William Farel
(1489 – 13 September 1565), Guilhem Farel or Guillaume Farel (French: [gijom faʁɛl]), was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed
Reformed
Church in the cantons of Neuchâtel, Berne, Geneva, and Vaud in Switzerland. He is most often remembered for having persuaded John Calvin
John Calvin
to remain in Geneva
Geneva
in 1536,[1] and for persuading him to return there in 1541,[2] after their expulsion in 1538
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Theology Of John Calvin
The theology of John Calvin
John Calvin
has been influential in both the development of the system of belief now known as Calvinism
Calvinism
and in Protestant
Protestant
thought more generally. There has been disagreement among scholars regarding the degree to which later Calvinism
Calvinism
corresponds to Calvin's own theology. The Encyclopedia of Christianity
Christianity
suggests thatHis theological importance is tied to the attempted systematization of Christian doctrine
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Iconoclasm
Iconoclasm[Note 1] is the social belief in the importance of the destruction of icons and other images or monuments, most frequently for religious or political reasons. Over time, the word, usually in the adjectival form, has also come to refer to aggressive statements or actions against any well-established status quo. It is a frequent component of major political or religious changes
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Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
(Italian: [dʒiˈrɔːlamo savonaˈrɔːla]; 21 September 1452 – 23 May 1498) was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance
Renaissance
Florence. He was known for his prophecies of civic glory, the destruction of secular art and culture, and his calls for Christian
Christian
renewal. He denounced clerical corruption, despotic rule and the exploitation of the poor. He prophesied the coming of a biblical flood and a new Cyrus from the north who would reform the Church. In September 1494, when Charles VIII of France invaded Italy, and threatened Florence, such prophecies seemed on the verge of fulfilment. While Savonarola intervened with the French king, the Florentines expelled the ruling Medici and, at the friar's urging, established a "popular" republic
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