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English-speaking World
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.[1] The United States
United States
has the most native speakers at 258 million. Additionally, there are 60 million native English speakers in the United Kingdom, 19 million in Canada, 16.5 million in Australia, 4.5 million in Ireland, and 3.8 million in New Zealand. Other countries also use English as their primary and official languages. English is the third largest language by number of native speakers, after Mandarin and Spanish.[2] Estimates that include second language speakers vary greatly, from 470 million to more than 1 billion
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De Facto
In law and government, de facto (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/[1]; Latin: de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: [deː ˈfaktoː]), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.[2][3][4] It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law
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Second Language
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken by the community as a whole. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages, one of them being English, are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas. More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second-language acquisition (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines first language for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition
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Standard English
Standard English (SE) is the variety of English language
English language
that is used as the national norm in an English-speaking country, especially as the language for public and formal usage.[1] In England
England
and Wales, the term Standard English is associated with British English, the Received Pronunciation accent, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Standard English (UKSE) grammar and vocabulary
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Languages
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Dialect Continuum
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible. That happens, for example, across large parts of India
India
(the Indo-Aryan languages) or the Arab world
Arab world
(Arabic). Historically, it also happened in various parts of Europe
Europe
such as between Portugal, southern Belgium (Wallonia) and southern Italy
Italy
(Western Romance languages) and between Flanders
Flanders
and Austria
Austria
(German dialects). Leonard Bloomfield used the name dialect area.[1] Charles F
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De Jure
In law and government, de jure (/deɪ ˈdʒʊərɪ/ or /dɪ ˈdʒʊərɪ/; Latin: de iure, lit. 'in law' Latin pronunciation: [deː juːre]) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.[1] In contrast, de facto ("in fact" or "in practice") describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised.[2] The terms are often used to contrast different scenarios: for a colloquial example, "I know that, de jure, this is supposed to be a parking lot, but now that the flood has left four feet of water here, it's a de facto swimming pool".[3] Examples[edit] It is possible to have multiple simultaneous conflicting (de jure) legalities, possibly none of which is in force (de facto). After seizing power in 1526, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
made his brother, Umar Din, the lawful (de jure) Sultan
Sultan
of Adal
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India
India
India
(official name: the Republic
Republic
of India;[19] Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya) is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[e] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar
Myanmar
to the east
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British Indian Ocean Territory
The British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Territory (BIOT) is a British overseas territory of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
situated in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
halfway between Tanzania
Tanzania
and Indonesia
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Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(/dʒɪˈbrɔːltə/, /dʒɪˈbrɒltə/ or other permutations; Spanish pronunciation: [xiβɾalˈtaɾ]) is a British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.[8][9] It has an area of 6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi) and is bordered to the north by Spain. The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar
Rock of Gibraltar
at the foot of which is a densely populated city area, home to over 30,000 people, primarily Gibraltarians.[10] In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar
Gibraltar
from Spain
Spain
during the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
on behalf of the Habsburg
Habsburg
claim to the Spanish throne
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List Of Languages By Total Number Of Speakers
A number of sources have compiled lists of languages by their number of speakers. However, all such lists should be used with caution.First, it is difficult to define exactly what constitutes a language as opposed to a dialect. For example, some languages including Chinese and Arabic
Arabic
are sometimes considered single languages and sometimes language families. Similarly, Hindi
Hindi
is sometimes considered to be a language, but together with Urdu
Urdu
it also is often considered a single language, Hindustani. Second, there is no single criterion for how much knowledge is sufficient to be counted as a second-language speaker
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David Crystal
David Crystal, OBE, FBA, FLSW, FCIL (born 6 July 1941) is a British linguist, academic and author.Contents1 Family 2 Career 3 Work 4 Involvement in Shakespeare
Shakespeare
productions 5 Bibliography5.1 Books 5.2 Critical studies and reviews6 References 7 External linksFamily[edit] Crystal was born in Lisburn, Northern Ireland, on 6 July 1941 after his mother had been evacuated there during The Blitz. Before he reached the age of one, his parents separated. He remained estranged from and ignorant of his father (Dr. Samuel Crystal) for most of his childhood, but later learnt (through work contacts and a half-brother) of his father's life and career in London, and of his half-Jewish heritage. He grew up with his mother in Holyhead, North Wales, and Liverpool, England, where he attended St Mary's College from 1951.[1] He currently lives in Holyhead
Holyhead
with his wife, a former speech therapist and now children's author
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List Of Dialects Of The English Language
This is an overview list of dialects of the English language. Dialects are linguistic varieties which may differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, spelling and grammar. For the classification of varieties of English in terms of pronunciation only, see Regional accents of English. Dialects can be defined as "sub-forms of languages which are, in general, mutually comprehensible".[1] English speakers from different countries and regions use a variety of different accents (systems of pronunciation), as well as various localized words and grammatical constructions; many different dialects can be identified based on these factors. Dialects can be classified at broader or narrower levels: within a broad national or regional dialect, various more localized sub-dialects can be identified, and so on
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Spanish Language
Spanish (/ˈspænɪʃ/ (listen); español (help·info)) or Castilian[3] (/kæˈstɪliən/ (listen), castellano (help·info)) is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas
Americas
and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[4][5][6][7][8] Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin (/ˈmændərɪn, -drɪn/ ( listen); simplified Chinese: 官话; traditional Chinese: 官話; pinyin: Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects (北方话; běifānghuà). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible
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Manx English
English
English
usually refers to: English
English
people English
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