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Endocrinopathy
Endocrinology
Endocrinology
(from Greek ἔνδον, endon, "within"; κρίνω, krīnō, "to separate"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones. It is also concerned with the integration of developmental events proliferation, growth, and differentiation, and the psychological or behavioral activities of metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sleep, digestion, respiration, excretion, mood, stress, lactation, movement, reproduction, and sensory perception caused by hormones. Specializations include behavioral endocrinology[1][2][3] and comparative endocrinology. The endocrine system consists of several glands, all in different parts of the body, that secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct system
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Endocrinology (journal)
Endocrinology
Endocrinology
is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by The Endocrine Society. It is the Society's oldest journal and was established in 1917. It covers research on all aspects of endocrinology, including growth factors, steroids, the thyroid, and physiology. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal had a 2011 impact factor of 4.459.[1] Its current editor-in-chief is Andrea Gore. References[edit]^ "Endocrinology". 2011 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters
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Neuroendocrine
Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood. In this way they bring about an integration between the nervous system and the endocrine system, a process known as neuroendocrine integration. An example of a neuroendocrine cell is a cell of the adrenal medulla (innermost part of the adrenal gland), which releases adrenaline to the blood. The adrenal medullary cells are controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. These cells are modified postganglionic neurons. Autonomic nerve fibers lead directly to them from the central nervous system. The adrenal medullary hormones are kept in vesicles much in the same way neurotransmitters are kept in neuronal vesicles
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Triiodothyronine
Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone. It affects almost every physiological process in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, body temperature, and heart rate.[1] Production of T3 and its prohormone thyroxine (T4) is activated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released from the anterior pituitary gland. This pathway is part of a closed-loop feedback process: Elevated concentrations of T3, and T4 in the blood plasma inhibit the production of TSH in the anterior pituitary gland. As concentrations of these hormones decrease, the anterior pituitary gland increases production of TSH, and by these processes, a feedback control system stabilizes the amount of thyroid hormones that are in the bloodstream. T3 is the true hormone. Its effects on target tissues are roughly four times more potent than those of T4.[2] Of the thyroid hormone that is produced, just about 20% is T3, whereas 80% is produced as T4
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Gland
A gland is a group of cells[1] in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).Contents1 Structure1.1 Development2 Function2.1 Endocrine glands 2.2 Exocrine glands3 Clinical significance 4 Other's animals 5 Additional images 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] Main article: List of glands of the human body Development[edit]This image shows some of the various possible glandular arrangements. These are the simple tubular, simple branched tubular, simple coiled tubular, simple acinar, and simple branched acinar glands.This image shows some of the various possible glandular arrangements. These are the compound tubular, compound acinar, and compound tubulo-acinar glands.Every gland is formed by an ingrowth from an epithelial surface
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Thyroid Hormone
The thyroid gland makes and releases two hormones: triiodothyronine (T3)[o-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-iodophenyl)3,5-diiodophenyl tyrosine]and thyroxine (T4)[o-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl)3,5diiodophenyl tyrosine]. They are tyrosine-based hormones that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. T3 and T4 are partially composed of iodine (see molecular model). A deficiency of iodine leads to decreased production of T3 and T4, enlarges the thyroid tissue and will cause the disease known as simple goitre. The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4), which has a longer half-life than T3.[1] In humans, the ratio of T4 to T3 released into the blood is sometimes claimed to be quite high, but thyroid removal patient data suggests it to vary between 4:1 to 2:1, the average being 100:36 (roughly 2.8:1). T4 is converted to the active T3 (three to four times more potent than T4) within cells by deiodinases (5'-iodinase)
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Growth Hormone
Growth hormone
Growth hormone
(GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone [hGH or HGH] in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals. It is thus important in human development. It is a type of mitogen which is specific only to certain kinds of cells. Growth hormone
Growth hormone
is a 191-amino acid, single-chain polypeptide that is synthesized, stored and secreted by somatotropic cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland. GH is a stress hormone that raises the concentration of glucose and free fatty acids.[1][2] It also stimulates production of IGF-1. A recombinant form of hGH called somatropin (INN) is used as a prescription drug to treat children's growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. In the United States, it is only available legally from pharmacies, by prescription from a doctor
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Insulin
1A7F, 1AI0, 1AIY, 1B9E, 1BEN, 1EFE, 1EV3, 1EV6, 1EVR, 1FU2, 1FUB, 1G7A, 1G7B, 1GUJ, 1HIQ, 1HIS, 1HIT, 1HLS, 1HTV, 1HUI, 1IOG, 1IOH, 1J73, 1JCA, 1JCO, 1K3M, 1KMF, 1LKQ, 1LPH, 1MHI, 1MHJ, 1MSO, 1OS3, 1OS4, 1Q4V, 1QIY, 1QIZ, 1QJ0, 1RWE, 1SF1, 1SJT, 1SJU, 1T0C, 1T1K, 1T1P, 1T1Q, 1TRZ, 1TYL, 1TYM, 1UZ9, 1VKT, 1W8P, 1XDA, 1XGL, 1XW7, 1ZEG, 1ZEH, 1ZNJ, 2AIY, 2C8Q, 2C8R, 2CEU, 2G54, 2G56, 2H67, 2HH4, 2HHO, 2HIU, 2JMN, 2JUM, 2JUU, 2JUV, 2JV1, 2JZQ, 2K91, 2K9R, 2KJJ, 2KJU, 2KQP, 2KQQ, 2KXK, 2L1Y, 2L1Z, 2LGB, 2M1D, 2M1E, 2M2M, 2M2N, 2M2O, 2M2P, 2OLY, 2OLZ, 2OM0, 2OM1, 2OMG, 2OMH, 2OMI, 2QIU, 2R34, 2R35, 2R36, 2RN5, 2VJZ, 2VK0, 2W44, 2WBY, 2WC0, 2WRU, 2WRV, 2WRW, 2WRX, 2WS0, 2WS1, 2WS4, 2WS6, 2WS7, 3AIY, 3BXQ, 3E7Y, 3E7Z, 3EXX, 3FQ9, 3HYD, 3I3Z, 3I40, 3ILG, 3INC, 3IR0, 3Q6E, 3ROV, 3TT8, 3U4N, 3UTQ, 3UTS, 3UTT, 3V19, 3V1G, 3W11, 3W12, 3W13, 3W7Y, 3W7Z, 3W80, 3ZI3, 3ZQR, 3ZS2, 3ZU1, 4AIY, 4AJX, 4AJZ, 4AK0, 4AKJ, 4EFX, 4EWW, 4EWX, 4EWZ, 4EX0, 4EX1, 4EXX, 4EY1, 4EY9, 4EYD, 4EYN, 4EYP, 4F0N, 4F0O, 4F1A
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Thyroid-stimulating Hormone
Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Thyroid-stimulating hormone
(also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.[1] It is a glycoprotein hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland, which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid.[2][3] In 1916, Bennett M. Allen and Philip E
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Homeostasis
Homeostasis
Homeostasis
can be defined as the stable state of an organism and of its internal environment;[1] as the maintenance or regulation of the stable condition, or its equilibrium;[2] or simply as the balance of bodily functions.[3] The stable condition is the condition of optimal functioning for the organism, and is dependent on many variables, such as body temperature and fluid balance, being kept within certain pre-set limits.[4] Other variables include the pH of extracellular fluid, the concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium ions, as well as that of the blood sugar level, and these need to be regulated despite changes in the environment, diet, or level of activity
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Paracrine
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells. Signaling molecules known as paracrine factors diffuse over a relatively short distance (local action), as opposed to endocrine factors (hormones which travel considerably longer distances via the circulatory system), juxtacrine interactions, and autocrine signaling. Cells that produce paracrine factors secrete them into the immediate extracellular environment. Factors then travel to nearby cells in which the gradient of factor received determines the outcome. However, the exact distance that paracrine factors can travel is not certain.Overview of signal transduction pathways.Although paracrine signaling elicits a diverse array of responses in the induced cells, most paracrine factors utilize a relatively streamlined set of receptors and pathways
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Autocrine Signaling
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.[1] This can be contrasted with paracrine signaling, intracrine signaling, or classical endocrine signaling.Contents1 Examples 2 Cancer2.1 In the Wnt pathway 2.2 IL-6 2.3 VEGF 2.4 Promotion of metastasis 2.5 Development of therapeutic targets 2.6 Role in drug resistance3 See also 4 References 5 External linksExamples[edit] An example of an autocrine agent is the cytokine interleukin-1 in monocytes
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Intracrine
Intracrine refers to a hormone that acts inside a cell, regulating intracellular events. Steroid hormones act through intracellular (mostly nuclear) receptors and, thus, may be considered to be intracrines. In contrast, peptide or protein hormones, in general, act as endocrines, autocrines, or paracrines by binding to their receptors present on the cell surface. Several peptide/protein hormones or their isoforms also act inside the cell through different mechanisms. These peptide/protein hormones, which have intracellular functions, are also called intracrines. The term 'intracrine' is thought to have been coined to represent peptide/protein hormones that also have intracellular actions. The biological effects produced by intracellular actions are referred as intracrine effects, whereas those produced by binding to cell surface receptors are called endocrine, autocrine, or paracrine effects, depending on the origin of the hormone
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Neuroendocrinology
Neuroendocrinology
Neuroendocrinology
= neurology (from Greek: νεῦρον, neuron, and the suffix -λογία -logia "study of") + endocrinology (from Greek ἔνδον, endon, "within"; κρίνω, krīnō, "to separate"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, including the biological features of the cells involved (cytology), and how they communicate (see: Cell biology). The nervous and endocrine systems often act together in a process called neuroendocrine integration, to regulate the physiological processes of the human body
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Glands
A gland is a group of cells[1] in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).Contents1 Structure1.1 Development2 Function2.1 Endocrine glands 2.2 Exocrine glands3 Clinical significance 4 Other's animals 5 Additional images 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] Main article: List of glands of the human body Development[edit]This image shows some of the various possible glandular arrangements. These are the simple tubular, simple branched tubular, simple coiled tubular, simple acinar, and simple branched acinar glands.This image shows some of the various possible glandular arrangements. These are the compound tubular, compound acinar, and compound tubulo-acinar glands.Every gland is formed by an ingrowth from an epithelial surface
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Cortisol
Cortisol
Cortisol
is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones. When used as a medication, it is known as hydrocortisone. It is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland.[1] It is released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration
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