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Empress Matilda
EMPRESS MATILDA (c. 7 February 1102 – 10 September 1167), also known as the EMPRESS MAUDE, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy . The daughter of King Henry I of England , she moved to Germany as a child when she married the future Holy Roman Emperor Henry V . She travelled with her husband into Italy in 1116, was controversially crowned in St. Peter\'s Basilica , and acted as the imperial regent in Italy. Matilda and Henry had no children, and when Henry died in 1125, the crown was claimed by Lothair II , one of his political enemies. Meanwhile, Matilda's younger brother, William Adelin , died in the White Ship disaster of 1120, leaving England facing a potential succession crisis. On Emperor Henry V's death, Matilda was recalled to Normandy by her father, who arranged for her to marry Geoffrey of Anjou to form an alliance to protect his southern borders
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Becket Controversy
The BECKET CONTROVERSY or BECKET DISPUTE was the quarrel between Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket
, the Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
, and King Henry II of England , from 1163 to 1170. The controversy culminated with Becket's murder in 1170, and was followed by Becket's canonization in 1173 and Henry's public penance at Canterbury in July 1174. 14th-century depiction of Becket with King Henry II CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Start of the dispute * 3 Buildup to exile * 4 Exile * 5 End of the dispute * 6 Effects of the dispute * 7 Aftermath * 8 Legacy * 9 Citations * 10 References BACKGROUNDKing Henry II appointed his chancellor, Thomas Becket, as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162. This appointment was made to replace Theobald of Bec , the previous archbishop, who had died in 1161
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River Isis
"THE ISIS" is an alternative name for the River Thames
River Thames
, used from its source in the Cotswolds
Cotswolds
until it is joined by the Thame at Dorchester in Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
. It derives from the ancient name for the Thames, Tamesis, which in the Middle Ages was falsely assumed to be a combination of "Thame" and "Isis". Notably the Isis flows through the city of Oxford
Oxford
. CONTENTS * 1 Rowing * 2 Angling * 3 Related uses * 4 See also * 5 References ROWINGThe name "Isis" is especially used in the context of rowing at the University of Oxford
Oxford

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Circa
CIRCA (from Latin , meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated C., CA. or CA (also CIRC. or CCA.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date. Circa is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty. Circa should only be used for dates in the past. For example: * 1732–1799 or 1732–99: both years are known precisely. * c. 1732 – 1799: only the end year is known accurately; the start year is approximate. * 1732 – c. 1799: only the start year is known accurately; the end year is approximate. * c. 1732 – c. 1799: both years are approximate.SEE ALSO * Floruit REFERENCES * ^ "circa". Dictionary.com
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Cistercian
A CISTERCIAN is a member of the CISTERCIAN ORDER (/sɪˈstɜːrʃən/ , abbreviated as OCIST or SOCIST (Latin : (Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), a religious order of monks and nuns . They are variously called the BERNARDINES, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux
(though the term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
), or the WHITE MONKS, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians
Cistercians
over their habits, as opposed to the black cucculas worn by the Benedictine
Benedictine
monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales
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Duke Of Normandy
In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, the DUKE OF NORMANDY was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France . The duchy arose out of a grant of land to the Viking
Viking
leader Rollo by the French king Charles III in 911. In 924 and again in 933, Normandy was expanded by royal grant. Rollo's male-line descendants continued to rule it down to 1135. In 1202 the French king Philip II declared Normandy forfeit and by 1204 his army had conquered it. It remained a French royal province thereafter, still called the Duchy of Normandy, but only occasionally granted to a duke of the royal house as an apanage . There is no record of Rollo holding or using any title. His son and grandson, William I and Richard I , used the titles "count" (Latin comes or consul) and "prince" (princeps)
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Westminster Abbey
WESTMINSTER ABBEY, formally titled the COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST PETER AT WESTMINSTER, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster , London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster . It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral . Since 1560, however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England " Royal Peculiar "—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the original abbey church
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Old St. Peter's Basilica
OLD ST. PETER\'S BASILICA was the building that stood, from the 4th to 16th centuries, on the spot where the new St. Peter\'s Basilica stands today in Vatican City
Vatican City
. Construction of the basilica, built over the historical site of the Circus of Nero , began during the reign of Emperor Constantine I . The name "old St. Peter's Basilica" has been used since the construction of the current basilica to distinguish the two buildings. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Design * 2.1 Mosaics * 3 Tombs * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORY An early interpretation of the relative locations of the Circus of Nero , and the old and current Basilicas of St. Peter Construction began by orders of the Roman Emperor Constantine I between 318 and 322, and took about 30 years to complete
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Anglo-Norman
The ANGLO-NORMANS were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
and Normans
Normans
, following the Norman conquest . A small number of Normans
Normans
had earlier befriended future Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
King of England
King of England
, Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
, during his exile in his mother's homeland of Normandy. When he returned to England some of them went with him, and so there were Normans
Normans
already settled in England prior to the conquest
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Christianity In England
The established Christian church in England
England
is the Church of England whose Supreme Governor is the Monarch of England
England
. Other Christian traditions include Roman Catholicism , Methodism
Methodism
, and the Baptists
Baptists
. After Christianity, the religions with the most adherents are Islam
Islam
, Hinduism
Hinduism
, Neopaganism , Sikhism , Judaism
Judaism
, Buddhism , and the Bahá\'í Faith
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Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor
LOTHAIR II or LOTHAIR III (before 9 June 1075 – 4 December 1137), known as LOTHAIR OF SUPPLINBURG, was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1133 until his death. He was appointed Duke of Saxony
Duke of Saxony
in 1106 and elected King of Germany
Germany
in 1125 before being crowned emperor in Rome. The son of the Saxon count Gebhard of Supplinburg , his reign was troubled by the constant intriguing of the Hohenstaufens , Duke Frederick II of Swabia and Duke Conrad of Franconia . He died while returning from a successful campaign against the Norman Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily

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Regent
A REGENT (from the Latin
Latin
regens, " ruling" ) is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated." The rule of a regent or regents is called a REGENCY. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession , the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent". If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent
Regent
ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out
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Oath
Traditionally an OATH (from Anglo-Saxon āð, also called PLIGHT) is either a statement of fact or a promise with wording relating to something considered sacred as a sign of verity. A common legal substitute for those who conscientiously object to making sacred oaths is to give an affirmation instead. Nowadays, even when there's no notion of sanctity involved, certain promises said out loud in ceremonial or juridical purpose are referred to as oaths. To swear is a verb used to describe the taking of an oath, to making a solemn vow
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Dynasty
A DYNASTY (UK : /ˈdɪnəsti/ , US : /ˈdaɪnəsti/ ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics . The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house ", which may be styled as "royal ", "princely ", "ducal ", "comital ", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states , such as Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China , using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase ")
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Alfred The Great
ALFRED THE GREAT ( Old English
Old English
: Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd , "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex
Wessex
from 871 to 899. Alfred successfully defended his kingdom against the Viking
Viking
attempt at conquest, and by the time of his death had become the dominant ruler in England
England
. He is one of only two English monarchs to be given the epithet "the Great", the other being the Scandinavian Cnut the Great . He was also the first King of the West Saxons to style himself "King of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
". Details of Alfred's life are described in a work by the 9th-century Welsh scholar and bishop Asser
Asser

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Anselm Of Canterbury
ANSELM OF CANTERBURY (c. 1033 – 21 April 1109) was a Benedictine monk , abbot , philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. After his death, he was canonized as a saint ; his feast day is 21 April. Beginning at Bec, Anselm composed dialogues and treatises with a rational and philosophical approach, sometimes causing him to be credited as the founder of Scholasticism
Scholasticism
. Despite his lack of recognition in this field in his own time, Anselm is now famed as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God and of the satisfaction theory of atonement . He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by a bull of Pope Clement XI
Pope Clement XI
in 1720. As archbishop, he defended the church's interests in England amid the Investiture Controversy
Investiture Controversy

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