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Empress Matilda
Empress Matilda
Empress Matilda
(c. 7 February 1102 – 10 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude,[nb 1] was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy. The daughter of King Henry I of England, she moved to Germany as a child when she married the future Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Henry V. She travelled with her husband into Italy in 1116, was controversially crowned in St. Peter's Basilica, and acted as the imperial regent in Italy. Matilda and Henry had no children, and when Henry died in 1125, the crown was claimed by Lothair II, one of his political enemies. Meanwhile, Matilda's younger brother, William Adelin, died in the White Ship
White Ship
disaster of 1120, leaving England
England
facing a potential succession crisis
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Alfred The Great
Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
(Old English: Ælfrēd,[a] Ælfrǣd[b], "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex
King of Wessex
from 871 to 899. Alfred was the youngest son of King Æthelwulf
Æthelwulf
of Wessex. Taking the throne after the death of his brother Æthelred, Alfred spent several years dealing with Viking
Viking
invasions. After a decisive victory in the Battle of Edington
Battle of Edington
in 878 Alfred made an agreement with the Vikings, creating what was known as Danelaw
Danelaw
in the North of England
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Kingdom Of France
La Parisienne (1830–1848) "The Parisian"The Kingdom of France
France
in 1789.Capital Paris
Paris
(987–1682) Versailles (1682–1789)
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English Channel
The English Channel
English Channel
(French: la Manche, "The Sleeve"; German: Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Breton: Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Cornish: Mor Bretannek, "British Sea"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England
England
from northern France, and links the southern part of the North Sea
North Sea
to the Atlantic Ocean
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Duke Of Normandy
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France. The duchy arose out of a grant of land to the Viking
Viking
leader Rollo
Rollo
by the French king Charles III in 911. In 924 and again in 933, Normandy was expanded by royal grant. Rollo's male-line descendants continued to rule it down to 1135. In 1202 the French king Philip II declared Normandy forfeit and by 1204 his army had conquered it
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Cistercian
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (/sɪˈstɜːrʃən/,[1] abbreviated as OCist or SOCist (Latin: (Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), a religious order of monks and nuns. They are variously called the Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux
(though the term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland
Poland
and Lithuania), or the White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians
Cistercians
over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine
Benedictine
monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales
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Becket Controversy
The Becket controversy
Becket controversy
or Becket dispute was the quarrel between Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and King Henry II of England, from 1163 to 1170.[1] The controversy culminated with Becket's murder in 1170,[2] and was followed by Becket's canonization in 1173 and Henry's public penance at Canterbury in July 1174.[3]14th-century depiction of Becket with King Henry IIContents1 Background 2 Start of the dispute 3 Buildup to exile 4 Exile 5 End of the dispute 6 Effects of the dispute 7 Aftermath 8 Legacy 9 Citations 10 ReferencesBackground[edit] King Henry II appointed his chancellor, Thomas Becket, as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162.[1] This appointment was made to replace Theobald of Bec, the previous archbishop, who had died in 1161
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River Isis
"The Isis" is an alternative name for the River Thames, used from its source in the Cotswolds
Cotswolds
until it is joined by the Thame at Dorchester in Oxfordshire. It derives from the ancient name for the Thames, Tamesis, which in the Middle Ages was falsely assumed to be a combination of "Thame" and "Isis".[note 1][1] Notably the Isis flows through the city of Oxford.Contents1 Rowing 2 Angling 3 Related uses 4 See also 5 ReferencesRowing[edit] The name "Isis" is especially used in the context of rowing at the University of Oxford. A number of rowing regattas are held on the Isis, including Eights Week, the most important Oxford
Oxford
University regatta, in the Trinity term (summer), Torpids
Torpids
in the Hilary term (early spring) and Christ Church Regatta for novices in the Michaelmas term (autumn)
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Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. The building itself was a Benedictine
Benedictine
monastic church until the monastery was dissolved in 1539. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral
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Christianity In England
Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic[1] religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ, or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths
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Anglo-Normans
The Anglo- Normans
Normans
were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans
Normans
and French, following the Norman conquest. A small number of Normans
Normans
had earlier befriended future Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
King of England, Edward the Confessor, during his exile in his mother's homeland of Normandy. When he returned to England some of them went with him, and so there were Normans
Normans
already settled in England prior to the conquest
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Oath
Traditionally an oath (from Anglo-Saxon āð, also called plight) is either a statement of fact or a promise with wording relating to something considered sacred as a sign of verity. A common legal substitute for those who conscientiously object to making sacred oaths is to give an affirmation instead. Nowadays, even when there is no notion of sanctity involved, certain promises said out loud in ceremonial or juridical purpose are referred to as oaths
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Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor
Lothair II
Lothair II
or Lothair III[a] (before 9 June 1075 – 4 December 1137), known as Lothair of Supplinburg, was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1133 until his death. He was appointed Duke of Saxony
Duke of Saxony
in 1106 and elected King of Germany
Germany
in 1125 before being crowned emperor in Rome. The son of the Saxon count Gebhard of Supplinburg, his reign was troubled by the constant intriguing of the Hohenstaufens, Duke Frederick II of Swabia and Duke Conrad of Franconia. He died while returning from a successful campaign against the Norman Kingdom of Sicily.Contents1 Rise to power 2 Supplinburger dynasty2.1 Dispute with the Staufens 2.2 Relations with the Papacy3 Campaign against Sicily3.1 Actions in the north and east4 Issue 5 Ancestry 6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksRise to power[edit] Little is known of Lothair's youth
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Regent
A regent (from the Latin
Latin
regens,[1] "[one] ruling"[2]) is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated."[3] The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent". If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent
Regent
ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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