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Empress Kōken
Empress Kōken
Empress Kōken
(孝謙天皇, Kōken-tennō, 718 – August 28, 770), also known as Empress Shōtoku
Empress Shōtoku
(称徳天皇, Shōtoku-tennō), was the 46th (with Empress Kōken
Empress Kōken
name) and the 48th monarch of Japan (with Empress Shōtoku
Empress Shōtoku
name),[1] according to the traditional order of succession.[2] Empress Kōken
Empress Kōken
first reigned from 749 to 758, then, following the Fujiwara no Nakamaro Rebellion, she reascended the throne as Empress Shōtoku from 765 until her death in 770. Empress Kōken
Empress Kōken
was involved in the affair with priest Dōkyō and appointed him Grand Minister in 764. In 766, he was promoted to Hōō (priestly emperor) and in 770 had tried to ascend to throne by himself
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Prince Shōtoku
Prince Shōtoku
Prince Shōtoku
(聖徳太子, Shōtoku Taishi, February 7, 574 – April 8, 622[2]), also known as Prince Umayado (厩戸皇子, Umayado no ōji) or Prince Kamitsumiya (上宮皇子, Kamitsumiya no ōji), was a semi-legendary regent and a politician of the Asuka period
Asuka period
in Japan
Japan
who served under Empress Suiko. He was the son of Emperor Yōmei and his consort, Princess Anahobe no Hashihito, who was also Yōmei's younger half-sister. His parents were relatives of the ruling Soga clan[3] and he was involved in the defeat of the rival Mononobe clan.[4] The primary source of the life and accomplishments of Prince Shōtoku comes from the Nihon Shoki. Over successive generations, a devotional cult arose around the figure of Prince Shōtoku
Prince Shōtoku
for the protection of Japan, the Imperial Family, and for Buddhism
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Otagi Nenbutsu-ji
Otagi Nenbutsu-ji
Otagi Nenbutsu-ji
(Japanese: 愛宕念仏寺) is a Buddhist
Buddhist
temple in the Arashiyama
Arashiyama
neighborhood of Kyoto, Japan. Otagi Nenbutsu-ji
Otagi Nenbutsu-ji
was founded by Empress Shōtoku
Empress Shōtoku
in the middle of the eighth century. Though was destroyed by the flooding of the Kamo River, it was rebuilt as an offshoot of Enryaku-ji, a nearby temple. In the 13th century, it was again destroyed during a civil war. The temple was moved to its current location in 1922, later suffering typhoon damage in 1950. The gate of the temple contains two fierce-looking Nio
Nio
statues. Inside the temple are more than 1200 rakan, stone statues representing the disciples of Buddha
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Nara, Nara
Nara (奈良市, Nara-shi, Japanese: [naꜜɾa]) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture
Nara Prefecture
located in the Kansai region
Kansai region
of Japan. The city occupies the northern part of Nara Prefecture, bordering Kyoto Prefecture
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Mausoleum
A mausoleuma is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph
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Japanese Era Names
The Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name"), also known as gengō (元号), is the first of the two elements that identify years in the Japanese era calendar scheme. The second element, a number, counts the years since the era began; as in many other systems, there is no year zero. For example, the first year of the Heisei period
Heisei period
was 1989 CE, or " Heisei
Heisei
1", so the year 2018 CE in this scheme is "Heisei 30". As elsewhere in East Asia, the use of nengō was originally derived from Chinese Imperial practice, although the Japanese system is independent of the Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese era-naming systems. Unlike some of these other similar systems, Japanese era names are still in use
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Buddhist Monk
A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.[1] Male and female monastics ("nun", bhikkhuni ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
bhikṣuṇī)) are members of the Buddhist community.[2] The lives of all Buddhist monastics are governed by a set of rules called the prātimokṣa or pātimokkha.[1] Their lifestyles are shaped to support their spiritual practice: to live a simple and meditative life and attain nirvana.[3] A person under the age of 20 cannot be ordained as a bhikkhu or bhikkhuni but can be ordained as a śrāmaṇera or śrāmaṇērī.Contents1 Definition 2 Historical terms in Western literature 3 Ord
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Usa Jingū
Usa Jingū
Usa Jingū
(宇佐神宮), also known as Usa Hachimangū (宇佐八幡宮), is a Shinto shrine
Shinto shrine
in the city of Usa in Ōita Prefecture in Japan. Emperor Ojin, who was deified as Hachiman-jin (the tutelary god of warriors), is said to be enshrined in all the sites dedicated to him; and the first and earliest of these was at Usa in the early 8th century.[1] The Usa Jingū
Usa Jingū
has long been the recipient of Imperial patronage; and its prestige is considered second only to that of Ise.[3]Contents1 History1.1 Mikoshi 1.2 Branch shrines2 Hōjō-e festival 3 Architecture 4 See also 5 References5.1 Citations 5.2 Bibliography6 External linksHistory[edit] The shrine was founded in Kyushu during the Nara period
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Hachiman
In Japanese beliefs, Hachiman
Hachiman
(八幡神, Hachiman-jin/Yahata no kami) is the syncretic divinity of archery and war,[1][2][3] incorporating elements from both Shinto
Shinto
and Buddhism.[4] Although often called the god of war, he is more correctly defined as the tutelary god of warriors.[4][5] He is also the divine protector of Japan, the Japanese people and the Imperial House, the Minamoto clan
Minamoto clan
("Genji") and most samurai worshipped him. The name means "God of Eight Banners", referring to the eight heavenly banners that signaled the birth of the divine Emperor Ōjin. His symbolic animal and messenger is the dove. Since ancient times Hachiman
Hachiman
was worshiped by peasants as the god of agriculture and by fishermen who hoped he would fill their nets with much fish
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Usa, Ōita
Usa (宇佐市, Usa-shi) is a city located in Ōita Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on April 1, 1967. On March 31, 2005, the towns of Ajimu and Innai (both from Usa District) were merged into Usa. Usa is notable for being the location of the Usa Jingū, the head shrine of all of Hachiman
Hachiman
shrines in Japan. Nearby is the Ōita Prefectural Museum of History. As of March 2017, the city has an estimated population of 55,534 and a population density of 130 persons per km²
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Arashiyama
Arashiyama
Arashiyama
(嵐山, Storm Mountain) is a district on the western outskirts of Kyoto, Japan. It also refers to the mountain across the Ōi River, which forms a backdrop to the district. Arashiyama
Arashiyama
is a nationally designated Historic Site and Place of Scenic Beauty.[1]Contents1 Notable tourist sites 2 Transport 3 Togetsukyō 4 References 5 External linksNotable tourist sites[edit] Arashiyama
Arashiyama
Bamboo Grove The Iwatayama Monkey Park
Iwatayama Monkey Park
on the slopes of Arashiyama. Over 170 monkeys live at the park. While the monkeys are wild, they have become accustomed to humans. The park is on a small mountain not far from the Saga- Arashiyama
Arashiyama
rail station. Visitors can approach and photograph the monkeys
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Imina
Japanese names (日本人の氏名, Nihonjin no Shimei) in modern times usually consist of a family name (surname), followed by a given name. More than one given name is not generally used. Japanese names are usually written in kanji, which are characters usually Chinese in origin but Japanese in pronunciation
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Kyoto
Kyoto
Kyoto
(京都市, Kyōto-shi, pronounced [kʲoːꜜto] ( listen), pronounced [kʲoːtoꜜɕi] ( listen); UK: /kɪˈoʊtoʊ/, US: /kiˈoʊ-/, or /ˈkjoʊ-/[4]) is a city located in the central part of the island of Honshu, Japan. It has a population close to 1.5 million
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Kugyō
Kugyō
Kugyō
(公卿) is the collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan
Emperor of Japan
in pre-Meiji eras. The kugyō was broadly divided into two groups: the Kō (公), comprising the Chancellor of the Realm, the Minister of the Left, and the Minister of the Right; and the Kei (卿), comprising the Major Counsellor, the Middle Counsellor, the Court Councillor (参議, Sangi), and members of the Japanese court of the third rank or higher. As part of the Meiji reforms, a single aristocratic class, the kazoku, was created in 1869 by merging the kuge (the court nobility in Kyoto, of which the kugyō was a part) and the daimyōs (the feudal land holders and warriors). In the 1870s, the organizational structure of the court itself was also modernized. In the period after the Second World War, the kazoku was abolished, as a part of post-war Japanese reforms
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Meiji Period
The Meiji period
Meiji period
(明治時代, Meiji-jidai), also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.[1] This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan
Japan
during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudal society to its modern form. Fundamental changes affected its social structure, internal politics, economy, military, and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji
after 1868, and lasted until his death in 1912
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Daijō-kan
The Daijō-kan
Daijō-kan
or Dajō-kan (Japanese: 太政官),[1] also known as the Great Council of State, was (i) (Daijō-kan) the highest organ of Japan's premodern Imperial government under Ritsuryō
Ritsuryō
legal system during and after the Nara period
Nara period
or (ii) (Dajō-kan) the highest organ of Japan's government briefly restored to power after the Meiji Restoration, which was replaced by the Cabinet. It was consolidated in the Taihō Code
Taihō Code
of 702. The Asuka Kiyomihara Code of 689 marks the initial appearance of this central administrative body composed of the three ministers—the Daijō-daijin
Daijō-daijin
(Chancellor), the Sadaijin
Sadaijin
(Minister of the Left) and the Udaijin
Udaijin
(Minister of the Right).[2] The Imperial governing structure was headed by the Daijō-kan
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