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Empress Dowager Liu (Sui Dynasty)
Empress Dowager Liu (劉太后, personal name unknown), briefly further honored as Empress Dowager Shenggan (聖感皇太后, literally "the empress dowager with holy emotions"), was an empress dowager of the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty. She was a concubine of Yang Zhao, who was crown prince during the reign of his father Emperor Yang, and she was the mother of Yang Tong, the last person to claim the Sui throne. Little is known about her background. During the time that Yang Zhao was crown prince, she carried the title of Liangdi (良娣), which appeared to be the highest of the ranks among a crown prince's concubines. She was younger than another Consort Liu, who bore Yang Zhao's oldest son Yang Tan (楊倓). It is not known when she bore Yang Tong, likely the second of his three sons
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Empress Dowager
Empress dowager
Empress dowager
(also dowager empress or empress mother) (Chinese and Japanese: 皇太后; pinyin: húangtàihòu; rōmaji: Kōtaigō; Korean: 황태후; romaja: Hwang Tae Hu; Vietnamese: Hoàng Thái Hậu; hiragana: こうたいごう) is the English language translation of the title given to the mother or widow of a Chinese, Japanese, Korean or Vietnamese emperor. The title was also given occasionally to another woman of the same generation, while a woman from the previous generation was sometimes given the title of grand empress dowager (Chinese and Japanese: 太皇太后; pinyin: tàihúangtàihòu; rōmaji: Taikōtaigō; Korean pronunciation: Tae Hwang Tae Hu; Vietnamese: Thái Hoàng Thái Hậu; hiragana: たいこうたいごう). Numerous empress dowagers held regency during the reign of underage emperors. Many of the most prominent empress dowagers also extended their control for long periods after the emperor was old enough to govern
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History Of China
The earliest known written records of the history of China
China
date from as early as 1250 BC,[1][2] from the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(c. 1600–1046 BC).[3] Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (c. 100 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang
Shang
writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia.[3][4] The Shang
Shang
ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic
Neolithic
civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River
Yellow River
and Yangtze
Yangtze
River
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Sui Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty (/swiː/;[3] Chinese: 隋朝; pinyin: Suí cháo) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China
China
of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties
and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese
Han Chinese
in the entirety of China
China
proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities (the Five Barbarians) within its territory
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Concubine
Concubinage
Concubinage
(/kəŋˈkjuːbɪnɪdʒ/) is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married. The inability to marry may be due to multiple factors such as differences in social rank status, an existing marriage, religious or professional prohibitions (for example Roman soldiers), or a lack of recognition by appropriate authorities. The woman in such a relationship is referred to as a concubine (/ˈkɒŋkjəˌbaɪn/), and occasionally so is a man in such a relationship. The prevalence of concubinage and the status of rights and expectations of a concubine have varied among cultures, as have the rights of children of a concubine
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Crown Prince
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. Its female form is crown princess, which may refer either to an heir apparent or, especially in earlier times, the wife of the person styled crown prince.[citation needed] Crown prince
Crown prince
as a descriptive term has been used throughout history for the prince being first in line to a throne and is expected to succeed (i.e. the heir apparent) barring any unforeseen future event preventing this. In certain monarchies, a more specific substantive title may be accorded and become associated with the position of heir apparent (e.g. Prince of Asturias
Prince of Asturias
in Spain, Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
in the United Kingdom)
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Emperor Yang Of Sui
Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor Yang of Sui
(隋煬帝, 569 – 11 April 618), personal name Yang Guang (楊廣), alternative name Ying (英), nickname Amo (阿摩), Sui Yang Di or Yang Di (隋炀帝) known as Emperor Ming (明帝) during the brief reign of his grandson Yang Tong), was the second son of Emperor Wen of Sui, and the second emperor of China's Sui dynasty. Emperor Yang's original name was Yang Ying, but was renamed by his father, after consulting with oracles, to Yang Guang. Yang Guang was made the Prince of Jin after Emperor Wen established Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
in 581. In 588, he was granted command of the five armies that invaded the southern Chen dynasty
Chen dynasty
and was widely praised for the success of this campaign. These military achievements, as well as his machinations against his older brother Yang Yong, led to him becoming crown prince in 600
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Luoyang
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River
Yellow River
in Central China. It is a prefecture-level city in western Henan
Henan
province. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
to the east, Pingdingshan
Pingdingshan
to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia
Sanmenxia
to the west, Jiyuan
Jiyuan
to the north, and Jiaozuo
Jiaozuo
to the northeast
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Yangzhou
Yangzhou, formerly romanized as Yangchow, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province, China. Sitting on the north bank of the Yangtze, it borders the provincial capital Nanjing
Nanjing
to the southwest, Huai'an
Huai'an
to the north, Yancheng
Yancheng
to the northeast, Taizhou to the east, and Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
across the river to the south. Its population was 4,414,681 at the 2010 census and its urban area is home to 2,146,980 inhabitants, including three urban districts, currently in the agglomeration. Historically, Yangzhou
Yangzhou
was one of the wealthiest cities in China, known at various periods for its great merchant families, poets, artists, and scholars. Its name (lit
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Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Jiangsu
( listen (help·info)), formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu
Jiangsu
is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu
Jiangsu
has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong.[4] Jiangsu borders Shandong
Shandong
in the north, Anhui
Anhui
to the west, and Zhejiang
Zhejiang
and Shanghai
Shanghai
to the south
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Yuwen Huaji
Yuwen
Yuwen
Huaji (Chinese: 宇文化及; died 619) was a general of the Chinese Sui Dynasty
Dynasty
who, in 618, led a coup against Emperor Yang of Sui, killing him. He subsequently declared Emperor Yang's nephew Yang Hao emperor and led Emperor Yang's elite Xiaoguo Army (驍果) north, but was then repeatedly defeated by Li Mi, Li Shentong (李神通), and finally Dou Jiande. Believing that his defeat was near and wanting to be emperor before his ultimate defeat, he poisoned Yang Hao and declared himself the emperor of a Xu state. Dou captured him in 619 and killed him.Contents1 Background 2 Coup against Emperor Yang 3 As regent over Yang Hao 4 As emperor 5 Personal information 6 ReferencesBackground[edit] It is not known when Yuwen
Yuwen
Huaji was born
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Yang Zhao
Yang Zhao (楊昭) (584–606), formally Crown Prince Yuande (元德太子, literally "the discerning and nurturing crown prince"), posthumously honored as Emperor Xiaocheng (孝成皇帝, literally "the filial and successful emperor") with the temple name Shizong (世宗) during the brief reign of his son Yang Tong, was a crown prince of the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty. He was the oldest son of Emperor Yang (Yang Guang) who predeceased his father. Background[edit] Yang Zhao was born in 584, while his father Yang Guang was the Prince of Jin under his grandfather Emperor Wen. His mother was Yang Guang's wife Princess Xiao, and he was their oldest son. In his infancy, he was raised by his grandparents Emperor Wen and Empress Dugu. In 590, Emperor Wen created him the Prince of Henan
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Wang Shichong
Wang Shichong
Wang Shichong
(王世充) (died 621), courtesy name Xingman (行滿), was a general of the Chinese Sui Dynasty
Dynasty
who deposed Sui's last emperor Yang Tong
Yang Tong
and briefly ruled as the emperor of a succeeding state of Zheng. He first became prominent during the reign of Emperor Yang of Sui as one of the few Sui generals having success against rebel generals, and during Yang Tong's brief reign, he was able to defeat the rebel general Li Mi and seize Li Mi's territory. After becoming emperor, however, he was unable to withstand military pressure from Tang Dynasty
Dynasty
forces, forcing him to seek aid from Dou Jiande the Prince of Xia
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Empress Dowager Liu (Sui Dynasty)
Empress Dowager Liu (劉太后, personal name unknown), briefly further honored as Empress Dowager Shenggan (聖感皇太后, literally "the empress dowager with holy emotions"), was an empress dowager of the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty. She was a concubine of Yang Zhao, who was crown prince during the reign of his father Emperor Yang, and she was the mother of Yang Tong, the last person to claim the Sui throne. Little is known about her background. During the time that Yang Zhao was crown prince, she carried the title of Liangdi (良娣), which appeared to be the highest of the ranks among a crown prince's concubines. She was younger than another Consort Liu, who bore Yang Zhao's oldest son Yang Tan (楊倓). It is not known when she bore Yang Tong, likely the second of his three sons
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Yang Tong
Yang Tong
Yang Tong
(Chinese: 楊侗; 604–619), known in traditional histories by his princely title of Prince of Yue (越王) or by his era name as Lord Huangtai (皇泰主), posthumous name (as bestowed by Wang Shichong) Emperor
Emperor
Gong (恭皇帝), courtesy name Renjin (仁謹), was an emperor of the Chinese Sui Dynasty. During the disturbances that permeated throughout the Sui state late in the dynasty's history, his grandfather Emperor
Emperor
Yang left him in charge of the eastern capital Luoyang, and after Emperor
Emperor
Yang was killed by the general Yuwen Huaji in 618, the Sui officials in Luoyang
Luoyang
declared Yang Tong
Yang Tong
emperor. However, soon one of those officials, Wang Shichong, seized power, and in 619 had Yang Tong
Yang Tong
yield the throne to him, ending Sui
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