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Empress Dowager Lü
Lü Zhi (241–180 BC), courtesy name Exu (Chinese: 娥姁; pinyin: Éxǔ), commonly known as Empress Lü
Empress Lü
(simplified Chinese: 吕后; traditional Chinese: 呂后; pinyin: Lǚ Hòu) and Empress Dowager
Empress Dowager
Lü (simplified Chinese: 吕太后; traditional Chinese: 呂太后; pinyin: Lǚ Tàihòu), or formally Empress Gao of Han (simplified Chinese: 汉高后; traditional Chinese: 漢高后; pinyin: Hàn Gāo Hòu), was the empress consort of Emperor Gaozu, Liu Bang's wife and the first empress of the Han Dynasty. They had two known children, Liu Ying (later Emperor Hui of Han) and Princess Yuan of Lu. Lü was the first woman to assume the title Empress of China
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Empress Lü (other)
Empress Lü
Empress Lü
(呂雉, 241–180 BC) was the first empress of the Chinese Han dynasty. Empress Lu may also refer to: Empress Lü
Empress Lü
(Houshao) (呂皇后, died 180 BC), wife of Emperor Houshao of Han Empress Lu (Liu Song dynasty) (路皇后, fl. 465), wife of Emperor Qianfei of Liu Song Empress Lu (Tang dynasty) (陸皇后, fl. 710), wife of Emperor Shang of TangThis disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name
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Three Qins
The Three Qins (Chinese: 三秦; pinyin: Sān Qín) refer to three of the Eighteen Kingdoms, formed from the division of the empire after the collapse of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
in 206 BC. The three kingdoms are located in Guanzhong
Guanzhong
(in present-day central Shaanxi), the heartland of the Qin Empire. Originally, according to a promise by King Huai II of Chu, Guanzhong belonged to Liu Bang, because Liu was the first to capture Guanzhong and end the Qin dynasty. However, Xiang Yu ignored the promise and relocated Liu to another fief, Kingdom of Han, which was located in present-day Sichuan. Guanzhong
Guanzhong
was granted to three former Qin generals, who surrendered to Xiang Yu after the Battle of Julu
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Pei County
Pei County, or Peixian (simplified Chinese: 沛县; traditional Chinese: 沛縣; pinyin: Pèi Xiàn), is under the administration of Xuzhou, Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province, China, bordering the Shandong prefecture-level cities of Jining
Jining
to the northwest and Zaozhuang
Zaozhuang
to the northeast and sitting on the western shore of Nansi Lake. It has an area of 1,576 square kilometres (608 sq mi) and a population of 1,141,935 in 2010.[1] History[edit] Pei County
Pei County
is the hometown of Liu Bang (Emperor Gao), the founding emperor of the Han dynasty. Xiaopei (小沛) is an ancient Chinese town located in present-day Pei County. In the late Eastern Han dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of Xu Province, which was governed by Tao Qian. Before Tao Qian died, he handed his governorship over to Liu Bei
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Xiao He
Xiao He
Xiao He
(died 193 BC) was a Chinese statesman of the early Western Han dynasty. He served Liu Bang (Emperor Gao), the founder of the Han dynasty, during the insurrection against the Qin dynasty, and fought on Liu's side in the Chu–Han Contention
Chu–Han Contention
against Liu's rival, Xiang Yu. After the founding of the Han dynasty, Xiao He
Xiao He
became the chancellor and held office until his death
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Chu (state)
Chu (Chinese: 楚, Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ[2]) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state. From King Wu of Chu
King Wu of Chu
in the early 8th century BCE, the rulers of Chu declared themselves kings on an equal footing with the Zhou kings. Though initially inconsequential, removed to the south of the Zhou heartland and practising differing customs, Chu began a series of administrative reforms, becoming a successful expansionist state during the Spring and Autumn period. With its continued expansion Chu became a great Warring States period
Warring States period
power. Also known as Jing (荆), Jingchu (荆楚) and Shu (舒), Chu included most of the present-day provinces of Hubei
Hubei
and Hunan, along with parts of Chongqing, Guizhou, Henan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Shanghai
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Emperor Yi Of Chu
Emperor Yi of Chu (died 206 BC), also known as King Huai II of Chu, personal name Xiong Xin, was the ruler of the Chu state in the late Qin dynasty. He was a grandson of King Huai of Chu. In 223 BC, during the Warring States period, the Chu state was conquered by the Qin state, which unified the various Chinese feudal states in a series of wars and established the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
in 221 BC. In 209 BC, when rebellions broke out throughout China to overthrow the Qin dynasty, the Chu state was revived as an insurgent state against Qin imperial rule. Xiong Xin was discovered by Xiang Liang, a rebel leader who descended from a famous Chu general (Xiang Yan), and installed on the Chu throne as "King Huai II of Chu". However, Xiong Xin was merely a puppet ruler because power was concentrated in Xiang Liang's hands, and was later passed on to Xiang Liang's nephew, Xiang Yu, after Xiang Liang was killed in battle
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Xianyang
Xianyang
Xianyang
(Chinese: 咸阳; pinyin: Xiányáng) is a Chinese city that was the capital of China in the Qin dynasty. It is a prefecture in modern-day Shaanxi
Shaanxi
province, on the Wei River, and is located a few kilometers upstream (west) from Xi'an. Integrated into the Xi'an metropolitan area, one of the main urban agglomerations in inland China, with more than 7.17 million inhabitants, its built-up area made of 2 urban districts (Qindu and Weicheng) was 945,420 inhabitants at the 2010 census
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Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Shaanxi
(Chinese: 陕西; pinyin: Shǎnxī) is a province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of the Northwest China region, it lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan
Henan
(E), Hubei
Hubei
(SE), Chongqing
Chongqing
(S), Sichuan
Sichuan
(SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia
Ningxia
(NW), and Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
(N). It covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people. Xi'an
Xi'an
– which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao
Fenghao
and Chang'an
Chang'an
– is the provincial capital. Xianyang, which served as the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
capital, is located nearby
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Xiang Yu
Xiang Ji (232–202 BC), courtesy name Yu, better known as Xiang Yu, was a prominent warlord who lived in the late Qin dynasty. A noble of Xiaxiang (下相; present-day Suqian, Jiangsu), Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu
was granted the title of "Duke of Lu" (魯公) by King Huai II of the insurgent Chu state in 208 BC. The following year, he led the rebel forces to victory at the Battle of Julu
Battle of Julu
against the Qin armies led by Zhang Han. After the fall of the Qin dynasty, Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu
proclaimed himself "Hegemon-King of Western Chu" and ruled a vast area of land covering parts of present-day Shanxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan
Hunan
and Jiangsu, with Pengcheng (present-day Xuzhou, Jiangsu) as his capital. He engaged Liu Bang, the founding emperor of the Han dynasty, in a long struggle for power, known as the Chu–Han Contention, which concluded with his eventual defeat at the Battle of Gaixia
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Eighteen Kingdoms
The historiographical term "Eighteen Kingdoms" (十八国) refers to the eighteen feudal states created by Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu
in China
China
in 206 BCE, after the collapse of the Qin dynasty.[1] The details of the feudal division are as follows:Name Name (Chinese) Ruler Areas covered (in present-day China)Western Chu 西楚 Xiang
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Sichuan
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China
China
occupying most of the Sichuan Basin
Sichuan Basin
and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
between the Jinsha River
Jinsha River
on the west, the Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains
in the north, and the Yungui Plateau
Yungui Plateau
to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu. The population of Sichuan
Sichuan
stands at 81 million. In antiquity, Sichuan
Sichuan
was the home of the ancient states of Ba and Shu. Their conquest by Qin strengthened it and paved the way for the First Emperor's unification of China
China
under the Qin dynasty. During the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
era, Liu Bei's Shu was based in Sichuan
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Guanzhong
Guanzhong
Guanzhong
(formerly romanised as Kwanchung; simplified Chinese: 关中; traditional Chinese: 關中; pinyin: Guānzhōng; Wade–Giles: Kuan1-chung1; literally: "Inside the Pass"), or Guanzhong
Guanzhong
Plain, is a historical region of China corresponding to the lower valley of the Wei River. It is called Guanzhong
Guanzhong
or 'within the passes', as opposed to 'Guandong' or 'east of the pass', i.e., the North China Plain. The North China Plain
North China Plain
is bordered on the west by mountains
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Chinese Name
Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora
Chinese diaspora
overseas. Due to China's historical dominance of East Asian culture, many names used in Korea and Vietnam are adaptations of Chinese names, or have historical roots in Chinese, with appropriate adaptation to accommodate linguistic differences. Modern Chinese names consist of a surname known as xing (姓, xìng), which comes first and is usually but not always monosyllabic, followed by a personal name called ming (名, míng), which is nearly always mono- or disyllabic
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Chu–Han Contention
Han victoryRe-unification of China Fall of Western Chu Founding of the Han dynastyBelligerentsHan Henan Western Chu Kingdom of Zhao Three QinsCommanders and leadersLiu Bang Han Xin Ying Bu Peng Yue Xiang Yu † Long Ju † Ji Bu Zhongli MeiThe Chu–Han Contention
Chu–Han Contention
(206–202 BC) was an interregnum between the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
and the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
in Chinese history. Following the collapse of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
in 206 BC, Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu
split the former Qin Empire into the Eighteen Kingdoms. Two major contending powers emerged, Western Chu and Han, which engaged in a struggle for supremacy over China. Western Chu was led by Xiang Yu, while the Han leader was Liu Bang
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Lunar Month
In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two successive syzygies (new moons or full moons). The use of the lunar month varies by which culture has utilized the method, the main difference being when the "new" month begins. This article deals with the definitions of a 'month' that are mainly of significance in astronomy. For other definitions, including a description of a month in the calendars of different cultures around the world, see: month.Contents1 Variations 2 Terminology2.1 Sidereal month 2.2 Synodic month 2.3 Tropical month 2.4 Anomalistic month 2.5 Draconic month3 Cycle lengths 4 See also 5 ReferencesVariations[edit] In Shona, Middle-Eastern, and European traditions, the month starts when the young crescent moon becomes first visible at evening after conjunction with the Sun one or two days before that evening (e.g., in the Islamic calendar)
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