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Emilio Mola
Emilio Mola
Emilio Mola
y Vidal, 1st Duke of Mola, Grandee
Grandee
of Spain
Spain
(9 July 1887 – 3 June 1937) was a Spanish Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War. He was a veteran of the African wars where he rose to prominence serving with the Regulars. He led the military uprising that culminated in the Spanish Civil War. He coined the term "fifth column".Contents1 Early life and career 2 July Rebellion and Civil War 3 Death 4 See also 5 ReferencesEarly life and career[edit] Mola was born in Placetas, Cuba, at that time an overseas Spanish province, where his father, an army officer, was stationed. The Cuban War of Independence split his family; while his father served in the Spanish forces, his maternal uncle Leoncio Vidal was a leading revolutionary fighter. In Spain, he enrolled in the Infantry Academy of Toledo in 1907
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Spanish Naming Customs
Spanish naming customs
Spanish naming customs
are historical traditions for naming children practised in Spain. According to these customs, a person's name consists of a given name (simple or composite) followed by two family names (surnames). The first surname is usually the father's first surname, and the second the mother's first surname. In recent years, the order of the surnames can be decided at birth. Often, the practice is to use one given name and the first surname only (e.g. Miguel de Unamuno), with the full name being used in legal, formal, and documentary matters, or for disambiguation when the first surname is very common (e.g. Federico García Lorca). [1]. In these cases, it is common to use only the second surname, as in “Lorca” or “Zapatero”
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Carlist
Carlism
Carlism
(Basque: Karlismo; Catalan: Carlisme; Galician: Carlismo; Spanish: Carlismo) is a traditionalist and legitimist political movement in Spain
Spain
seeking the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon dynasty on the Spanish throne.[1] This line descended from Don Carlos, Count of Molina (1788–1855), and was founded due to dispute over the succession laws and widespread dissatisfaction with the Alfonsine line of the House of Bourbon
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Morocco
Coordinates: 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6Kingdom of Moroccoالمملكة المغربية (Arabic) ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Berber)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  لله، الوطن، الملك  (Arabic) Allah, Al Watan, Al Malik ⴰⴽⵓⵛ, ⴰⵎⵓⵔ, ⴰⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ (Berber)"God, Homeland, King"Anthem:  النشيد الوطني المغربي  (Arabic) ⵉⵣⵍⵉ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ  (Berber) Cherifian AnthemDark green: Internationally recognized territory of Morocco. Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and mostly controlled by Morocco
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Surname
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).[1] Depending on the culture all members of a family unit may have identical surnames or there may be variations based on the cultural rules. In the English-speaking world, a surname is commonly referred to as a last name because it is usually placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In many parts of Asia, as well as some parts of Europe
Europe
and Africa, the family name is placed before a person's given name. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two surnames are commonly used and in some families that claim a connection to nobility even three are used. Surnames have not always existed and today are not universal in all cultures. This tradition has arisen separately in different cultures around the world
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Liberalism
Liberalism
Liberalism
is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.[1][2][3] Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas and programmes such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free markets, civil rights, democratic societies, secular governments, gender equality and international cooperation.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Liberalism
Liberalism
first became a distinct political movement during the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among philosophers and economists in the Western world. Liberalism
Liberalism
rejected the prevailing social and political norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy and the divine right of kings
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Socialism
Socialism
Socialism
is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production[10] as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.[11] Social ownership
Social ownership
may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity.[12] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them,[13] though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms.[5][14][15] Socialist
Socialist
economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms.[16] Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money, with engineering and technical criteria, based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism
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Pamplona
Pamplona
Pamplona
(Spanish: [pamˈplona]; French: Pampelune) or Iruña (Basque: [iɾuɲa], alternative spelling: Iruñea, IPA: [iɾuɲea])[3] is the historical capital city of Navarre, in Spain, and of the former Kingdom of Navarre. The city is famous worldwide for the running of the bulls during the San Fermín
San Fermín
festival, which is held annually from July 6 to 14
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Navarre
Navarre
Navarre
(English: /nəˈvɑːr/; Spanish: Navarra [naˈβara], Basque: Nafarroa [nafaˈroa]; Occitan: Navarra [naˈbaʁɔ]), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre
Navarre
(Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra [komuniˈðað foˈɾal de naˈβara]; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea [nafaroako foɾu komunitatea]), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon
Aragon
in Spain
Spain
and Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Nouvelle-Aquitaine
in France
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Spanish Protectorate Of Morocco
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco[a] was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France
France
and Spain[1] that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco
Morocco
into a formal protectorate. The Spanish protectorate consisted of a northern strip on the Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar, and a southern part of the protectorate[2] around Cape Juby, bordering the Spanish Sahara
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Cuban War Of Independence
Cuban victoryAmerican Intervention; Expulsion of the Spanish colonial government during Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
(1898). Treaty of Paris United States
United States
Military Government in Cuba Cuban independenceBelligerents Spain Spanish Cuba Spanish Philippines Cuban nationalists United StatesCommanders and leaders Arsenio Linares Manuel Macías Ramón Blanco Valeriano Weyler Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Máximo Gómez Calixto García José Martí
José Martí
† Antonio Maceo † Nelson A. Miles William Shafter George Dewey William T
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Miguel Cabanellas
Miguel Cabanellas Ferrer (1 January 1872 in Cartagena – 14 May 1938) was a Spanish Army officer during the Spanish Civil War. A cavalry officer, as a major he managed the creation of the African Regular troops (Moroccan troops in the Spanish army). In 1921 he participated in the reconquest of the Rif after the Battle of Annual. He was promoted to brigadier general and made envoy to the island of Menorca as military governor. Miguel Primo de Rivera permitted him to go into the reserves in 1926, which led him to participate in a revolt frustrated in 1929. For his support of the republicans, on 17 April 1931 the provisional government of the Republic named him commander in chief of Andalusia. Later he was named commander of the troops in Morocco and replaced José Sanjurjo in the main directorate of the Civil Guard. In 1934 he was a delegate of the Radical Republican Party
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Irún
Irun
Irun
(Spanish: Irún, Basque: Irun) is a town of the Bidasoaldea region in the province of Gipuzkoa
Gipuzkoa
in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain. It lies on the foundations of the ancient Oiasso, cited as a Roman-Vasconic town during the period.[1] One of the biggest towns in Gipuzkoa, its border town situation (it is located on the border between Spain
Spain
and France, across the Bidasoa river from Hendaye), has made Irun
Irun
into a commercial and logistic centre. Irun railway station
Irun railway station
is a major break-of-gauge where the SNCF 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge rails meet the 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) broad gauge Renfe
Renfe
ones
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Guipúzcoa
Gipuzkoa
Gipuzkoa
(in Basque and also the official form since 2011, [ɡipus̻ko.a]; in Spanish: Guipúzcoa [ɡiˈpuθko.a] is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. Its capital city is Donostia-San Sebastián. Gipuzkoa shares borders with the French department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques
Pyrénées-Atlantiques
at the northeast, with the province and autonomous community of Navarre at east, Biscay
Biscay
at west, Álava
Álava
at southwest and the Bay of Biscay
Biscay
to its north. It is located at the easternmost extreme of the Cantabric Sea, in the Bay of Biscay. It has 66 kilometres (41 miles) of coast land. With a total area of 1,980 square kilometres (760 square miles), Gipuzkoa
Gipuzkoa
is the smallest province of Spain
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Military Junta
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government different from civilian dictatorship for a number of reasons: their motivations for seizing power, the institutions through which they organize their rule and the ways in which they leave power. Often viewing itself as saving the nation from the corrupt or myopic civilian politicians, a military dictatorship justifies its position as "neutral" arbiters on the basis of their membership within the armed forces. For example, many juntas adopt titles, such as "National Redemption Council", "Committee of National Restoration", or "National Liberation Committee"
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Burgos
Burgos
Burgos
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbuɾɣos], UK: /ˈbʊərɡɒs/, US: /ˈbʊərɡoʊs/) is a city in northern Spain
Spain
and the historic capital of Castile. It is situated on the confluence of the Arlanzón river tributaries, at the edge of the Iberian central plateau. It has about 180,000 inhabitants in the actual city and another 20,000 in the metropolitan area. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León
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